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Radiogenix System

Last reviewed on RxList: 2/14/2018
Drug Description

RADIOGENIX ™ SYSTEM
(technetium Tc-99m generator) for the Production of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m Injection

DESCRIPTION

Chemical Characteristics

The RadioGenix™ System provides sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m injection, USP for intravenous use, intravesicular use, ophthalmic use, or for preparing radiopharmaceutical kits. The RadioGenix™ System uses a non-uranium potassium molybdate Mo-99 source solution to produce sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m Injection, USP. The RadioGenixTM System uses potassium molybdate Mo-99 sources at an activity of 6 Ci/29 mL (222 GBq) at the date and time of calibration.

Elution of RadioGenix™ System produces Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m (Na99mTcO4) in approximately 5 mL of sterile 0.9% sodium chloride injection solution. The activity of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m produced varies (30 mCi/mL to 1153 mCi/mL of technetium Tc-99m) and depends on the activity of potassium molybdate Mo-99 present in the source container originally, the decay time since the calibration time and the elapsed time since the previous Sodium

Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m is an inorganic compound with the formula Na99mTcO4. In solution, Sodium Pertechnetate exists as dissociated Na+ cations and pertechnetate TcO4  anions with the following molecular structure

RADIOGENIX ™ SYSTEM (technetium Tc-99m) - Structural Formula  Illustration

The eluted sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m injection, USP is sterile, non pyrogenic, clear and colorless solution. The pH of the solution is between 4.5 and 7.5.

Physical Characteristics

Technetium Tc-99m

Technetium Tc-99m decays by isomeric transition with a physical half-life of 6.01 hours. The principal photon that is useful for detection and imaging studies in shown in Table 8.

Table 8 : Principal Radiation Emission Data technetium Tc-99m

Radiation Mean Percent Per Disintegration Energy (keV)
Gamma-2 88.5 140.5

The air-kerma-rate (exposure-rate) constant for technetium Tc-99m is 5.23 m²·pGy·(MBq)-1·s-1 [0.795 cm²·R·(mCi)-1·h-1]. A range of values for the relative radiation attenuation by the various thicknesses of Pb is shown in Table 9. For example, the use of 3 mm thickness of Pb will attenuate the radiation exposure by a factor of about 1000.

Table 9 : Radiation Attenuation by Lead Shielding

Shield Thickness (Pb) mm Coefficient of Attenuation
0.25 0.5
1 10-1
2 10-2
3 10-3
4 10-4

Molybdenum Mo-99

Molybdenum Mo-99 decays to technetium Tc-99m with a molybdenum Mo-99 half-life of 66 hours. This means that 77.7% of the activity remains after 24 hours; 60.4% remains after 48 hours (see Table 10).

Table 10 : Molybdenum Mo-99 Decay Chart half-life 66.0 hours

Days Percent Remaining Days Percent Remaining
0* 100 10 8
1 77.7 11 6.3
2 60.4 12 4.9
3 46.9 13 3.8
4 36.5 14 2.9
5 28.4 15 2.3
6 22.0 20 0.6
7 17.1 25 0.2
8 13.3 30 0.1
9 10.3    
* calibration time

The physical decay characteristics of molybdenum Mo-99 are such that 88.6% of the decaying molybdenum Mo-99 atoms form Technetium Tc-99m. RadioGenix™ System elutions may be made at any time, but the amount of technetium Tc-99m hours will provide the maximal yield of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m.

To correct for physical decay of technetium Tc-99m, the fractions that remain at selected intervals of time are shown in Table 11.

Table 11 : Physical Decay Chart. Technetium Tc-99m, half-life 6.01 Hours

Hours Percent Remaining Hours Percent Remaining
0* 100 7 44.7
1 89.1 8 39.8
2 79.4 9 35.5
3 70.8 10 31.6
4 63.1 11 28.2
5 56.2 12 25.1
6 50.1    
* calibration time

Indications

INDICATIONS

The RadioGenix™ System is a technetium Tc-99m generator used to produce sterile, non-pyrogenic Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection is indicated for use in the preparation of FDA approved diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals.

Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection is also indicated:

In Adults For

  • Thyroid Imaging
  • Salivary Gland Imaging
  • Urinary Bladder Imaging (direct isotopic cystography) for detection of vesicoureteralreflux
  • Nasolacrimal Drainage System Imaging (dacryoscintigraphy)

In Pediatric Patients For

  • Thyroid Imaging
  • Urinary Bladder Imaging (direct isotopic cystography) for the detection of vesicoureteralreflux.

SLIDESHOW

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Dosage

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Radiation Safety – Drug Handling

  • The potassium molybdate Mo-99 source solution and Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection are radioactive and should be handled with appropriate safety measures to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare providers. Use waterproof gloves and effective shielding, including syringe shields, throughout the entire preparation and handling for the RadioGenix™ System and technetium Tc-99m injection [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Important Administration Instructions

  • Use aseptic technique in eluting generator and in all drug preparation and handling.
  • Inspect the Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Do not administer Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection if there is any evidence of discoloration or particulate matter.
  • Measure patient dose with a suitable radioactivity calibration system immediately prior to administration.
  • Instruct patients to hydrate after intravenous or intravesicular administration. Encourage the patient to void as soon as the imaging study is completed and frequently for the next 12 hours to minimize the radiation absorbed dose to the bladder.
  • Instruct patients to blow their nose and/or wash their eyes with sterile distilled water or an isotonic sodium chloride solution after ophthalmic administration to minimize the radiation absorbed dose.

Recommended Dose For Adults

The recommended doses for adult patients are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 : Recommended Dose of Sodium Pertechnetate for Adult Patients

Indication Megabecquerels (MBq) Millicuries (mCi) Administration Technique
Vesicoureteral imaging: 18.5 to 37 0.5 to 1
  • Intravesicular via a urethral catheter
  • Flush the catheter with approximately 200 mL of sterile saline directly into the bladder
Thyroid gland imaging: 37 to 370 1 to 10
  • Intravenous
Salivary gland imaging: 37 to 185 1 to 5
  • Intravenous
Nasolacrimal drainage system imaging: 3.7 (maximum) 0.1 (maximum)
  • Ophthalmic instillation with micropipette or similar method

Recommended Dose For PediatricPatients

The recommended doses for pediatric patients are as follows [Use In Specific Populations]:

Table 2 Recommended Dose for Pediatric Patients

Indication Megabecquerels (MBq) Millicuries (mCi) Administration Technique
Vesicoureteral imaging: 18.5 to 37 0.5 to 1 Intravesicular via urethral catheter
Thyroid gland imaging: 2.2 to 2.96 per kg of body weight (370 MBq maximum) 0.06 to 0.08 per kg of body weight (10 mCi maximum) Intravenous

RadioGenix™ System Maintenance

  • For complete system maintenance and use follow the RadioGenix™ System Operator Guide (94S05058).
  • Install the RadioGenix™ System in an operating environment which complies with local and national requirements for production of radiopharmaceutical products (ISO Class 8 or better environment as described in USP General Chapter 797 Pharmaceutical Compounding – Sterile Preparations).
  • The RadioGenix™ System is only for use by trained personnel.
  • Only use potassium molybdate Mo-99, processing reagents, saline and other components, including kits [Sterilization Kit for RadioGenix™ System (part number 40P05043), Reagent Kit for RadioGenix™ System (part number 40P05044), Tc-99m Product Kit for RadioGenix™ System (part number 40P05045), Discarded Material Kit for RadioGenix™ System (part number 40P05046), and Source Vessel Kit for RadioGenix™ System (part number 40P05047)], supplied by NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes.
  • Table 3 is a summary of RadioGenix™ System scheduled maintenance and protocol actions. Perform all protocols according to the illustrated directions provided in the RadioGenix™ System Operator Guide (94S05058):

Table 3 : RadioGenix™ System Scheduled Maintenance

Protocol Frequency Action
Initialize System When prompted or as needed (host computer screen will prompt the operator to perform initialization)
  • Perform an initialization cycle when prompted or when RadioGenix™ System is returned to service after a scheduled or unscheduled downtime, such as an interrupted cycle due to equipment or power failure.
Produce Tc-99m Every elution
  • Replace the technetium Tc-99m product cartridge, technetium Tc-99 product vial, 0.9% normal saline syringe and the product port caps.
Add/Change Reagents Every ten (10) elutions or after sterilization
  • Replace the primary separation cartridge (PSC), the reagent assembly consisting of 3% hydrogen peroxide, 5M potassium hydroxide and 1.5M sodium acetate along with their port caps.
Add/Remove Source Vessel Fourteen (14) days (maximum) after calibration date
  • Replace each potassium molybdate Mo-99 source solution with a new Mo-99 source.
  • Use each potassium molybdate Mo-99 source solution by the indicated expiration date on the label.
Sterilization Weekly
  • Perform software-driven ozonated water system sterilization process
  • Replace the 0.1 micrometer RGX air filter
Exchange Discarded Material Every two hundred (200) elutions or earlier
  • Remove radioactive waste (discarded material container holds 3.5 liters) using appropriate safety measures. Replace with a fresh container.

Directions For Eluting RadioGenix™ System

  • The Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection solution is produced using the “Produce Tc-99m” protocol through the  RadioGenix™ System home screen. Follow step by step directions for use provided in the RadioGenix™ System Operator Guide (94S05058).
  • The elution process to produce Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection involves the initial installation and set-up of the equipment, reagents, sterilizing filters, and sterile final product collection vials provided by NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes [see Table 3]
  • Implement the following prerequisites before the “Produce Tc-99m” protocol is initiated:
  1. Connect the potassium molybdate Mo-99 source container using the Source Vessel Kit for RadioGenix™ System (part number 40P05047)
  2. Aseptically install the Reagent Kit for RadioGenix™ System (part number 40P05044) consisting of 3 reagent solutions (3% Hydrogen Peroxide, 5M Potassium Hydroxide, and 1.5M Sodium Acetate) and the primary separation cartridge (PSC).
  3. Aseptically assemble and install the Tc-99m Product Kit for RadioGenix™ System (part number 40P05045) consisting of an alumina column, 0.22-micron filter, and a 20mL sterile collection vial.
  4. Attach the supplied pre-filled syringe containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection USP to the saline port.
  5. Initiate the computer controlled elution process to prepare Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection.
  6. After delivery of the Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection to the collection vial is complete, remove the collection vial and perform the quality control procedures [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Quality Control Of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m Injection

Perform the following quality control procedures on each Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection prior to its release for clinical use or for reconstitution with Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical kits.

Mo-99 Breakthrough Test
  • Using a suitable radioactivity calibrator, determine the activity of technetium Tc-99m eluted.
  • Place the Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection eluate in a calibrated Mo-99 assay shield. Place lid on container and put the entire container in the dose calibrator chamber.
  • Record the activity of molybdenum Mo-99 on the most sensitive scale.
  • Divide the activity of molybdenum Mo-99 by the activity of technetium Tc-99m. Correct for decay and shielding effect, if necessary.
  • Determine the molybdenum Mo-99/technetium Tc-99m ratio at the time of elution and from that ratio, determine the expiration time of the eluate. Each Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection eluate must meet or exceed purity requirement of 0.15 microCi of Mo-99 per mCi of Tc-99m.
  • The expiry time for each eluate of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m Injection must be no later than the 12 hours post elution or the time where the Mo-99 to Tc-99m ratio reaches 0.15 microCi/mCi, whichever occurs first.
Colorimetric Aluminum Ion Test Procedure
  • Using an aluminum ion indicator kit, determine the aluminum ion concentration of the eluate per the manufacturer's instructions.
  • The eluate concentration must not exceed 10 micrograms/mL.
Determination Of pH
  • Place a small drop of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection on a colorimetric pH strip.
  • Examine and compare the coloration of the test strip with the colors displayed on the pH cartridge.
  • The pH range must be between 4.5 and 7.5.

Radiolabeling (Reconstitution) Of Kits

  • In general, use no more than 3 mL volume for radiolabeling kits with RadioGenix System produced sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m injection, USP. For radiolabeling certain kits (such as Kit for the preparation of technetium Tc99m exametazime), use no more than 1 mL of volume.
  • Perform quality control of a radiolabeled kit per the directions in the kit package insert and only use the product if it meets the kit manufacturer's quality control requirements.
  • The radiolabeled product shall have an expiry no more than twelve hours from the time of Sodium Pertechnetate elution or the expiry time stated by the kit manufacturer, whichever occurs earlier.

Radiation Dosimetry

Intravenous Injection

Estimates of radiation absorbed dose per unit activity of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection administered to an adult of average size and weight and to pediatric patients of sizes and weights typical of representative ages are shown in Table 4.

Table 4 : Radiation Absorbed Dose from Intravenous Injection

Age Adult 15 years 10 years 5 years 1 year
Organ Absorbed dose per unit activity Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection administered intravenously with no thyroid-blocking agent (microGy/MBq) *
Adrenals 3.7 4.6 7.1 11 19
Bone Surfaces 5.4 6.5 9.6 14 25
Brain 2.0 2.5 4.1 6.5 11
Breasts 1.8 2.3 3.4 5.6 11
Gallbladder Wall 7.4 9.8 16 23 35
GI Tract
Esophagus 2.5 3.2 4.8 7.5 14
Stomach Wall 26 34 48 78 160
Small Intestine 16 20 31 47 82
Colon Wall 41 53 89 140 270
ULI Wall 56 73 120 200 370
LLI Wall 21 27 45 71 130
Heart Wall 3.1 4.0 6.0 9.1 16
Kidneys 5.0 6.0 8.6 13 21
Liver* * 4.8 6.0 10 15 28
Lungs 2.6 3.4 5.1 7.9 14
Muscles 3.2 4.0 6.0 9.1 16
Ovaries 9.9 13 18 27 44
Pancreas 5.6 7.2 11 16 27
Red Marrow 3.7 4.4 6.5 9.0 15
Salivary Glands 8.5 10 14 18 26
Skin 1.8 2.2 3.5 5.6 10
Spleen 4.3 5.3 8.0 12 20
Testes 2.8 3.7 5.9 9.1 16
Thymus 2.5 3.2 4.8 7.5 14
Thyroid 22 36 54 120 220
Urinary Bladder Wall 18 23 34 45 66
Uterus 8.1 10 16 23 37
Remaining Tissues 3.7 4.7 7.1 11 19
  Effective dose* per administered activity (microSv/MBq)
13 17 26 42 79
*To obtain radiation absorbed dose per unit activity in mrad/mCi from the preceding table, multiply individual values by a factor of 3.7. (For effective dose per administered activity, the resulting unit is mrem/mCi.)
**For the liver, 20% of the absorbed dose per unit activity is derived from a presumed maximum concentration of 0.015% MBq Mo-99 per MBq Tc-99m

Dacryoscintigraphy

Estimates of radiation absorbed dose to an adult patient from the nasolacrimal imaging procedure using a maximum dose of 3.7 megabecquerels (0.1 millicurie) of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m are shown in Table 5.

Table 5 : Radiation Absorbed Dose in the Eye Lens from Dacryoscintigraphy of Adults

  3.7 MBq (0.1 mCi) of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc- 99m
(mGy) (rad)
If lacrimal fluid turnover is 16% per min 0.140 0.014
If lacrimal fluid turnover is 100% per min 0.022 0.002

Cystography

Estimates of radiation absorbed dose per unit activity of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection administered through direct urinary-bladder infusion with no voiding over 30 minutes to an adult of average size and weight and to pediatric patients of sizes and weights typical of representative ages are shown in Table 6.

Table 6 : Radiation Absorbed Dose* from Cystography

Age Adult 15 years 10 years 5 years 1 year Newborn
Organ Absorbed dose per unit activity Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection administered through direct urinary-bladder infusion with no voiding over 30 minutes (microGy/MBq)
Bone Surfaces 0.19 0.24 0.35 0.51 0.95 1.8
Kidneys 0.035 0.051 0.11 0.22 0.37 0.83
Ovaries 0.97 1.2 1.8 2.6 3.9 7.1
Red Marrow 0.14 0.19 0.28 0.34 0.41 0.67
Testes 0.67 0.95 1.7 2.6 4.7 8.5
Urinary BladderWall 20 26 37 55 101 237
  Effective dose equivalent per administered activity (microSv/MBq)
1.7 2.2 3.2 4.7 8.3 19
*To obtain radiation absorbed dose per unit activity in mrad/mCi from the preceding table, multiply individual values by a factor of 3.7. (For effective dose equivalent per administered activity, the resulting unit is mrem/mCi.)

HOW SUPPLIED

Dosage Forms And Strength

The RadioGenix™ System provides sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m injection, USP, from a non – highly enriched uranium source of potassium molybdate Mo-99, as a clear, colorless solution containing 30 mCi/mL to 1153 mCi/mL (1110 to 42,661 MBq/mL) of technetium Tc-99m radioactivity in approximately 5mL of volume. The amount of Tc-99m radioactivity depends on the radioactivity in the potassium molybdate Mo-99 source. The source is supplied in vessels containing 6 Ci (222 GBq) at the date and time of calibration.

Storage And Handling

The RadioGenix™ System is a Technetium Tc-99m Generator supplied and installed by NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes. It produces Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection from a non-uranium potassium molybdate Mo-99 source solution. The potassium molybdate Mo-99 source solution is shielded within a source container which completely encases a vial that contains 29mL of solution. NorthStar supplies potassium molybdate Mo-99 solution with the referenced calibration date and time specified on the container label (Table 12):

Table 12 : Potassium Molybdate Mo-99 Solution Containers

Mo-99 Activity at Time of Calibration Product Number NDC Number
Curies Gigabecquerels
6.0 222 40P03246 xxxxx-xxx-xx

The following kits (Tables 13-17) are used in the operation of the RadioGenix™ System as described in the RadioGenix™ System Operator Guide, 94S05058.

Table 13 : Materials Supplied in Source Vessel Kit for RadioGenix™ System, part number (p/n) 40P05047

Component Description Component Part Number Qty.
Catheter 77P03046 1
Air Filter 77C01237 1
Manifold 12D02774 1
Absorbent Cloth 73C05400 1
Black Cap 77C01489 1
Cap 77C05450 1
Luer Cap 77C05449 1

Table 14 : Materials Supplied in Reagent Kit for RadioGenix™ System, p/n 40P05044

Component Description Component Part Number Qty.
Reagents 16P04143 1
Primary Separation Cartridge (PSC) 40P03354 1
Hydrogen Peroxide Wipe 16C07455 5

Table 15 : Materials Supplied in Tc-99m Product Kit for RadioGenix™ System, p/n 40P05045

Component Description Component Part Number Qty.
Tc-99m Product Cartridge (TPC) 40P04600 1
Tc-99m Collection Vial 77C01318 1
Saline Syringe 16C05227 1
Product Port Cap 16C05212 1
Cap 16C04989 1
Hydrogen Peroxide Wipe 16C07455 1

Table 16 : Materials Supplied in Sterilization Kit for RadioGenix™ System, p/n 40P05043

Component Description Component Part Number Qty.
Blank Primary Separation Cartridge (PSC) 40P04578 1
Blank Tc-99m Product Cartridge (TPC) 40P05377 1
Spike NA 1
Air Filter 77C01237 1
Cap 16C04989
Product Port Cap 16C05212 1
Purge Water Container 77C05585 1
Sterile Water for Injection (SWFI) 16C04488 1
Hydrogen Peroxide Wipe 16C07455 13
Product Vial NA 1

Table 17 : Materials Supplied in Discarded Material Kit for RadioGenixTM System, p/n 40P05046

Component Description Component Part Number Qty.
Discarded Material Container 12D05146 1
Silicone Tubing 77C05431 1
Luer Cap 77C05449 1

Storage And Handling

Storage
  • Receipt, transfer, storage, handling, possession or use of the potassium molybdate Mo-99 source solution, Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection, and radioactive components of the RadioGenix™ System are subject to the radioactive material regulations and licensing requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Agreement States or Licensing States.
  • Install and operate RadioGenix™  System, and store the potassium molybdate Mo-99 source solutions and kits [Sterilization Kit for RadioGenix™  System (p/n 40P05043), Reagent Kit for RadioGenix™  System (p/n 40P05044), Tc-99m Product Kit for RadioGenix™ System (p/n 40P05045), Discarded Material Kit for RadioGenixTM System (p/n 40P05046), and Source Vessel Kit for RadioGenix™  System (p/n 40P05047)] at 20°C-25°C (68°F-77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°F-86°F).
Disposal
  • The maximum use period of a RadioGenix™  System is one year from the date of installation. After expiry, have NorthStar perform annual preventative maintenance and recertify the RadioGenix™  System.
  • The maximum use period of the ozone generator is 6 months. After expiry, have NorthStar replace the ozone generator.
  • When the potassium molybdate Mo-99 source has reached the end of its useful life or expiration date, remove the source vessel from the RadioGenix™  System and return to NorthStar for processing.
  • Dispose the radioactive waste (discarded material) container in accordance with applicable regulations.

Manufactured and Distributed by: NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes LLC 1800 Gateway Blvd Beloit, Wisconsin 53511. Revised: Feb 2018

Side Effects & Drug Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the label

  • Radiation Exposure Risk
  • Unintended Mo-99 Exposure

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions associated with the use of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection have been identified in post-marketing experience. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Allergic reactions (skin rash, hives, or itching) including anaphylaxis has been reported following the administration of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

No Information provided

QUESTION

What causes dry eyes? See Answer
Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Radiation Exposure Risk

Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m contributes to a patient's overall long term cumulative radiation exposure. Long term cumulative radiation exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Use the lowest dose of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m necessary for imaging and ensure safe handling and preparation to protect the patient and health care worker from unintentional radiation exposure. Encourage patients to drink fluids and void as frequently as possible after intravenous or intravesicular administration. Advise patients to blow their nose and wash their eyes with water after ophthalmic administration [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Radiation risks associated with the use of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m are greater in pediatric patients than in adults due to greater absorbed radiation doses and longer life expectancy. Ensure the diagnostic benefit of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc99m outweighs these greater risks prior to administration in pediatric patients.

Unintended Mo-99 Exposure

Unintended exposure to Mo-99 radiation contributes to a patient's overall cumulative radiation dose. To minimize the risk of unintended radiation exposure, strict adherence to the eluate testing protocol is required. Use only potassium molybdate Mo-99, processing reagents, saline, and other supplies, including kits, provided by NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes. Do not administer Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection after the 0.15microCi of Mo-99/mCi of Tc-99m limit has been reached and discard the Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection when the 12 hour expiration time is reached; whichever occurs earlier [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity reactions, including serious signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis, following administration of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection have been reported. Always have cardiopulmonary resuscitation equipment and personnel available and monitor all patients for hypersensitivity reactions

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

No long-term studies have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenicity potential, or to determine whether Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection may affect fertility in males or females.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are no available data with Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m use in pregnant women to inform any drug-associated risks of developmental outcomes. Animal reproductive studies have not been conducted with Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m. All radiopharmaceuticals, including Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m, have the potential to cause fetal harm depending on the fetal stage of development and the magnitude of the radiation dose. If considering Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m administration to a pregnant woman, inform the patient about the potential for adverse pregnancy outcomes based on the radiation dose from Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m and the gestational timing of exposure.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies are 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Lactation

Risk Summary

There are limited data available in the published literature on the presence of technetium Tc-99m in human milk. There are no data available on the effects of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m on the breast fed infant or the effects on milk production. Exposure of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m to a breastfed infant can be minimized by temporary discontinuation of breast feeding (see Clinical Considerations). The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m, any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical Considerations

To decrease radiation exposure to the breastfed infant, advise a lactating woman to pump and discard breastmilk after the administration of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m for 12 to 24 hours, where the duration corresponds to the typical range of administrated activity, 259 MBq to 925 MBq (7mCi to 25mCi).

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness have been established for Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m in pediatric patients from birth (term neonates) to 17 years of age of age for thyroid imaging and for urinary bladder imaging via direct isotopic cystography for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux based on clinical experience. Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients for salivary gland imaging or nasolacrimal drainage system imaging. Although dose adjustment based on body size or weight is generally recommended, the administered dose should be adequate to obtain acceptable quality diagnostic information [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Radiation risks of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection are greater in pediatric patients than adults [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Geriatric Use

Studies on the relationship of age to the effects of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m injection have not been performed in the geriatric population. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE

No Information provided

CONTRAINDICATIONS

None.

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism Of Action

The pertechnetate ion distributes in the body similarly to the iodide ion, but is not organified. In contrast to the iodide ion, the pertechnetate is released unchanged from the thyroid gland.

Pharmacodynamics

Pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid gland, salivary glands, gastric mucosa and choroid plexus. After intravenous administration, it equilibrates with the extracellular space.

Following the administration of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m as an eye drop, the drug mixes with tears within the conjunctival space. Within seconds to minutes it leaves the conjunctival space and escapes into the inferior meatus of the nose through the nasolacrimal drainage system. During this process the pertechnetate ions pass through the canaliculi, the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct. In the event of any anatomical or functional blockage of the drainage system there will be a backflow resulting in tearing (epiphora). Thus, the pertechnetate escapes the conjunctival space in the tears. The majority of the pertechnetate escapes within a few minutes of normal drainage and tearing.

Pharmacokinetics

Times to peak concentrations of pertechnetate following intravenous administration are 3.5 hours for cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and 0.25 to 2 hours for thyroid (euthyroid patients).

The disappearance of pertechnetate from plasma is biexponential with an initial phase of 10 minutes and a terminal phase of 3 hours. The corresponding phases in CSF are less than 1 hour and 11-12 hours, respectively.

Distribution

Pertechnetate distributes throughout the body concentrating in the gastric mucosa, thyroid gland, salivary glands, and urinary bladder.

Elimination

Excretion

Elimination by urinary route is 27% in 1 day, 31% in 4 days, and 34% in 8 days based on rate of excretion.

Medication Guide

PATIENT INFORMATION

Administration Instructions

Intravenous Or Intravesicular Administration

Advise patients to hydrate before (4 hours) and after administration and to void as soon as the imaging study is completed and as often as possible thereafter for the next 12 hours to minimize radiation exposure [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Ophthalmic Administration

After the termination of the nasolacrimal imaging procedure, Advise patient to blow their nose and/or wash their eyes with sterile distilled water to further minimize the radiation dose [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Pregnancy

Advise pregnant women of the risk of fetal exposure to radiation dose if they undergo a radionuclide procedure [see Use In Specific Populations].

Lactation

Advise a lactating woman that exposure of the infant to technetium Tc-99m through breast milk can be minimized if breastfeeding is interrupted when technetium Tc-99m is administered. Advise a lactating woman to pump and discard breast milk for 12 to 24 hours based on injected dose [see Use In Specific Populations].

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