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Rape (Sexual Assault) (cont.)

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What are the physical and psychological effects of sexual assault and rape?

If left untreated, the physical and psychological effects of sexual assault and rape can be devastating, sometimes even deadly. Causes of death as the result of sexual violence include suicide, murder, and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Murder of sexual assault and rape victims may be perpetrated by the rapist or as part of an honor killing by family members of the victim. A victim of a rape or other sexual assault might become pregnant as a result of the rape. He or she could develop nightmares, flashbacks, changes in their sleep and appetite, or develop full-blown emotional problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or substance abuse. Individuals who have experienced sexual assault are at risk for other day-to-day problems, including arguing with family members and having problems at work.

Where can I get more information about sexual assault and rape?

1in6 is for men who have experienced unwanted or abusive childhood sexual experiences and those who care about them.

The Awareness Center: The International Jewish Coalition Against Sexual Abuse/Assault (JCASA) is dedicated to addressing childhood sexual abuse in Jewish communities worldwide.

Child Help USA exists to meet the physical, emotional, educational, and spiritual needs of abused and neglected children.

John Howard Society -- Supporting Adult Men -- Male Adult Survivors of Abuse, Substance Abuse, Harm Reduction, Domestic Violence and Anger Management.

Just Detention International seeks to end sexual violence committed against men, women, and children in all forms of detention.

PMB 103
5505 Connecticut Ave NW
Washington DC 20015-4181

Military Rape Crisis Center

National Sexual Assault Hotline 24 hours a day.
1-800-656-HOPE (1-800-656-4673)

Parents for Megan's Law and the Crime Victims Center (PFML/CVC) provides national helpline community support and assistance on issues related to Megan's Law, sex offender management, and sexual assault prevention. 1-888-275-7365

Rape Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN)

RAINN (Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network) is the nation's largest antisexual assault organization and operates the National Sexual Assault Hotline (800.656.HOPE and in partnership with over 1,100 local rape crisis centers across the country.

Safe Society Zone works to address sexual assault prevention in schools.

Speaking Out Against Rape, Inc. (SOAR) runs national awareness, education, and prevention programs to empower survivors of sexual violence and enhance the public's understanding and acceptance of rape victims.

SNAP - The Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests US, national support group for women and men abused by religious authority figures.

Stop Abuse for Everyone (SAFE) is a human rights organization that provides services, publications, and training to serve those who typically fall between the cracks of domestic violence services: straight men, GLBT victims, teens, and the elderly. We promote services for all victims and accountability for all perpetrators.

Victims Resource Center provides a wide range of services to men, women, and children who are victims of crime. These services include a 24-hour hotline, support groups, counseling, and advocacy for victims. VRC also provides numerous educational programs for students of all ages, professionals, and community groups. The Victims Resource Center is private, confidential, and it's services are free.

Medically reviewed by Avrom Simon, MD; Board Certified Preventative Medicine with Subspecialty in Occupational Medicine


American Association of University Women (AAUW) Foundation Sexual Harassment Task Force. "Harassment-Free Hallways: How to Stop Sexual Harassment in School. A Guide for Students, Parents, and Schools." Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 2004.

Garner, B.A., ed. Black's Law Dictionary, 9th edition. United States: The West Group, 2009.

Dukes, R.L., K.N. Borega, S.L. Clayton, C.K. Dukes, et al. "Tainted Love: Content Analysis of Documents Written by Accused Spousal Abusers to Their Victims." Psychological Reports 90.2 Apr. 2002: 679-684. "Prison Rape: The Challenge of Prevention and Enforcement." May 2006.

109th Congress of the United States of America. Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005; 1/4/05, HR-3402.

Richmond, J.M., A.N. Elliott, T.W. Pierce, et al. "Polyvictimizaiton, Childhood Victimization, and Psychological Distress in College Women." Childhood Maltreatment 14.2 May 2009: 127-147.

Sadler, A.G., B.M. Booth, B.L. Cook, and B.N. Doebbeling. "Factors Associated With Women's Risk of Rape in the Military Environment." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 43 (2003): 262-273.

Spatz Widom, C., and S. Hiller-Sturmhöfel. "Alcohol Abuse as a Risk Factor for and Consequence of Child Abuse." Alcohol Research & Health 25.1 (2001): 52-56.

Switzerland. World Health Organization. Sexual Violence. In, World Report on Violence and Health 2002.

United States. National Institute of Justice. "Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner of Violence: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey." Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2000.

Violence Against Women Online Resources. "Ensuring Forensic Medical Exams for All Sexual Assault Victims: A Toolkit for States and Territories." Violence Against Women Online Resources, Dec. 2008.

Welch, J., and F. Mason. "Rape and Sexual Assault." British Medical Journal 334.7604 June 2, 2007: 1154-1158. "North Carolina Statutes." Feb. 2010.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/23/2015


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