Rheumatoid Arthritis (cont.)
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Catherine Burt Driver, MD
Catherine Burt Driver, MD, is board certified in internal medicine and rheumatology by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Driver is a member of the American College of Rheumatology. She currently is in active practice in the field of rheumatology in Mission Viejo, Calif., where she is a partner in Mission Internal Medical Group.
In this Article
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) facts
- What is rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?
- Rheumatoid arthritis vs. osteoarthritis
- What are rheumatoid arthritis causes and risk factors?
- What are complications of rheumatoid arthritis?
- What are rheumatoid arthritis symptoms and signs?
- What tests do physicians use to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis?
- What are the stages of rheumatoid arthritis?
- What are rheumatoid arthritis treatment options? What are types of rheumatoid arthritis medications?
- "First-line" rheumatoid arthritis medications
- "Second-line" or "slow-acting" rheumatoid arthritis drugs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or DMARDs)
- What are newer rheumatoid arthritis medical treatments?
- Rheumatoid arthritis diet, exercise, therapy, home remedies, and alternative medicine
- What about rheumatoid arthritis and pregnancy?
- What is the prognosis for patients with rheumatoid arthritis?
- Is there a cure for RA?
- What are tips for living with rheumatoid arthritis?
- Is it possible to prevent rheumatoid arthritis?
- What specialists treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?
- What new information about RA has come from the 2015 national meeting of the American College of Rheumatology?
- What research is being done on rheumatoid arthritis?
- Are there support groups for people with rheumatoid arthritis?
- Where can people get additional information on rheumatoid arthritis?
- Newly Diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment
- Rheumatoid Arthritis FAQs
- Find a local Rheumatologist in your town
Rheumatoid arthritis vs. osteoarthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is a destructive joint disease that is caused by inflammation in the tissue that normally produces lubrication fluid for joints. When this tissue remains inflamed, it leads to deformity by loosening joint ligaments and to joint destruction by eroding away cartilage and bone.
Osteoarthritis is a noninflammatory joint disease whereby the cartilage of the joint thins, typically asymmetrically -- so only one knee or hand may be affected. The illustration on the previous page demonstrates the difference between a normal joint and those of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
While rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic illness, meaning it can last for years, patients may experience long periods without symptoms. However, rheumatoid arthritis is typically a progressive illness that has the potential to cause significant joint destruction and functional disability.
A joint is where two bones meet to allow movement of body parts. Arthritis means joint inflammation. The joint inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis causes swelling, pain, stiffness, and redness in the joints. The inflammation of rheumatoid disease can also occur in tissues around the joints, such as the tendons, ligaments, and muscles.
In some people with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic inflammation leads to the destruction of the cartilage, bone, and ligaments, causing deformity of the joints. Damage to the joints can occur early in the disease and be progressive. Moreover, studies have shown that the progressive damage to the joints does not necessarily correlate with the degree of pain, stiffness, or swelling present in the joints.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a common rheumatic disease, affecting approximately 1.3 million people in the United States, according to current census data. The disease is three times more common in women as in men. It afflicts people of all races equally. The disease can begin at any age and even affects children (juvenile idiopathic arthritis), but it most often starts after 40 years of age and before 60 years of age. Though uncommon, in some families, multiple members can be affected, suggesting a genetic basis for the disorder.
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