Other Name(s):

Common Sage, Dalmatian Sage, Feuille de la Bergère, Garden Sage, Herbe Sacré, Meadow Sage, Salvia lavandulaefolia, Salvia officinalis, Sauge, Sauge Ananas, Sauge des Prairies, Sauge Divinatoire, Sauge Divine, Sauge Domestique, Sauge Officinale, Scarlet Sage, Spanish Sage, True Sage, Vraie Sauge.


Sage is an herb. The leaf is used to make medicine.

Sage is used for digestive problems, including loss of appetite, gas (flatulence), stomach pain (gastritis), diarrhea, bloating, and heartburn. It is also used for reducing overproduction of perspiration and saliva; and for depression, memory loss, and Alzheimer's disease.

Women use sage for painful menstrual periods, to correct excessive milk flow during nursing, and to reduce hot flashes during menopause.

Sage is applied directly to the skin for cold sores; gum disease (gingivitis); sore mouth, throat or tongue; and swollen, painful nasal passages.

Some people inhale sage for asthma.

In foods, sage is used as a commonly used spice.

In manufacturing, sage is used as a fragrance component in soaps and cosmetics.

How does it work?

Sage might help chemical imbalances in the brain that cause symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.


One of the first symptoms of Alzheimer's disease is __________________. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for...

  • Alzheimer's disease. Taking extracts of two different sage species (Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia) for 4 months seems to improve learning, memory and information processing in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.
  • Mental performance. Taking a single dose of common sage (Salvia officinalis) or Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) by mouth seems to improve memory, alertness, and attention in healthy adults. When used as aromatherapy, these sage species seem to improve alertness, but not attention and memory.
  • Cold sores, when applied as a cream containing sage and rhubarb. Applying a cream containing common sage (Salvia officinalis) and rhubarb (Rheum officinale and Rheum palmatum) to cold sores may be about as effective as acyclovir (Zovirax) cream. Acyclovir cream heals the cold sores in about 6 days; it takes the sage and rhubarb cream about 7 days to heal them. Sage and rhubarb together work faster than sage alone.
  • High cholesterol. Taking common sage (Salvia officinalis) three times per day for 2 months seems to reduce “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and blood fats called triglycerides, and increase “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, in people with high cholesterol.
  • Memory. Taking a single dose of common sage (Salvia officinalis) or Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) by mouth seems to improve memory in healthy adults. However, these sage species do not seem to improve memory when used as aromatherapy.
  • Menopausal symptoms. Early research suggests that taking extract of common sage (Sage Menopause, Bioforce AG) for 8 weeks improves symptoms of menopause, especially hot flashes. Also, other developing research suggests that taking a combination of common sage (Salvia officinalis) and alfalfa extract for 3 months reduces hot flashes and night sweats.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Lung cancer. People who regularly use sage as a spice seem to have a 54% lower chance of developing lung cancer compared to those who don't use sage.
  • Sore throat. Using a specific spray containing 15% common sage extract (Valverde Salvia Rachenspray) seems to reduce throat pain in people with a sore throat. However, sprays containing higher (30%) and lower (5%) amounts of common sage extract do not seem to reduce throat pain. Other early research suggests that spraying the throat with a specific product containing common sage and echinacea for up to 5 days improves sore throat symptoms similarly to a commonly used drug spray.
  • Pain after surgery. Early research suggests that taking common sage (Salvia officinalis) along with the drugs ibuprofen or diclofenac is less effective for reducing pain after surgery compared to using the drug benzydamine hydrochloride. Also, using common sage seems to increase the risk of infections after surgery compared to benzydamine hydrochloride.
  • Sunburn. Applying 2% common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract to the skin after UV exposure seems to reduce the development of skin redness.
  • Swelling of the tonsils (tonsillitis). Early research suggests that spraying the throat with a specific product containing common sage and echinacea for up to 5 days improves symptoms of tonsillitis similarly to a commonly used drug
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Stomach pain.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Painful periods.
  • Asthma.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Gas.
  • Bloating.
  • Indigestion.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Other condition.
More evidence is needed to rate sage for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Sage is LIKELY SAFE in amounts typically used in foods. It is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth or applied to the skin in medicinal amounts short-term (up to 4 months).

However, sage is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses or for a long time. Some species of sage, such as common sage (Salvia officinalis), contain a chemical called thujone. Thujone can be poisonous if you get enough. This chemical can cause seizures and damage to the liver and nervous systems. The amount of thujone varies with the species of plant, the time of harvest, growing conditions, and other factors.


Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, and Aging Brains See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Taking sage during pregnancy is LIKELY UNSAFE because of the possibility of consuming thujone, a chemical found in some sage. Thujone can bring on a woman's menstrual period, and this could cause a miscarriage. Avoid sage if you are breast-feeding, too. There is some evidence that thujone might reduce the mother's milk supply.

Diabetes: Sage might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use sage. The dose of your diabetes medications may need to be adjusted by your healthcare provider.

Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might have the same effects as the female hormone estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don't use Spanish sage.

High blood pressure, low blood pressure: Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase blood pressure in some people with high blood pressure, while common sage (Salvia officinalis) might lower blood pressure in people with blood pressure that is already low. Be sure to monitor your blood pressure.

Seizure disorders: One species of sage (Salvia officinalis) contains significant amounts of thujone, a chemical that can trigger seizures. If you have a seizure disorder, don't take sage in amounts higher than those typically found in food.

Surgery: Common sage might affect blood sugar levels. There is a concern that it might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop using common sage as a medicine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Drying medications (Anticholinergic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Common sage (Salvia officinalis) and Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase levels of certain chemicals in the body that work in the brain, heart, and elsewhere. Some drying medications called "anticholinergic drugs" can also these same chemicals, but in a different way. These drying medications might decrease the effects of these sage species, and these sage species might decrease the effects of drying medications.

Some of these drying medications include atropine, scopolamine, some medications used for allergies (antihistamines), and some medications used for depression (antidepressants).

EstrogensInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Geraniol, a chemical in Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia), might have some of the same effects as estrogen. However, geraniol found in Spanish sage isn't as strong as estrogen pills. Taking Spanish sage along with estrogen pills might decrease the effects of estrogen pills.

Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage along with some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking sage as a medicine, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are changed by the liver include omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), and pantoprazole (Protonix); diazepam (Valium); carisoprodol (Soma); nelfinavir (Viracept); and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking sage as a medicine, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are changed by the liver include diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren), ibuprofen (Motrin), meloxicam (Mobic), and piroxicam (Feldene); celecoxib (Celebrex); amitriptyline (Elavil); warfarin (Coumadin); glipizide (Glucotrol); losartan (Cozaar); and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how quickly the body breaks down some medications. Taking sage along with some medications that are changed by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking sage as a medicine, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are changed by the body include amitriptyline (Elavil), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), flecainide (Tambocor), fluoxetine (Prozac), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Common sage might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking common sage along with some medications that are changed by the liver might decrease the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking common sage as a medicine, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are changed by the liver include acetaminophen, chlorzoxazone (Parafon Forte), ethanol, theophylline, and drugs used for anesthesia during surgery such as enflurane (Ethrane), halothane (Fluothane), isoflurane (Forane), and methoxyflurane (Penthrane).

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage along with some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking sage as a medicine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Medications that might be affected include certain heart medications called calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), cancer drugs (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), fungus-fighting drugs (ketoconazole, itraconazole), glucocorticoids, alfentanil (Alfenta), cisapride (Propulsid), fentanyl (Sublimaze), lidocaine (Xylocaine), losartan (Cozaar), midazolam (Versed), and others.

Medications for Alzheimer's disease (Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Common sage (Salvia officinalis) and Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase certain chemicals in the brain, heart, and elsewhere in the body. Some medications used for Alzheimer's disease also affect these chemicals. Taking these species of sage along with medications for Alzheimer's disease might increase effects and side effects of medications used for Alzheimer's disease.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Sage might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking sage along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Common sage (Salvia officinalis) seems to lower blood pressure. Taking common sage along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. On the other hand, Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase blood pressure. Taking Spanish sage along with medications for high blood pressure might reduce the effects of these medications.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-glycoprotein substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are moved by pumps into cells. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) might make these pumps less active and increase how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This might increase the side effects of some medications.

Some medications that are moved by these pumps include etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (Propulsid), fexofenadine (Allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (Imodium), quinidine, and others.

Medications used to prevent seizures (Anticonvulsants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Medications used to prevent seizures affect chemicals in the brain. Sage may also affect chemicals in the brain. By affecting chemicals in the brain, sage may decrease the effectiveness of medications used to prevent seizures.

Some medications used to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (Mysoline), valproic acid (Depakene), gabapentin (Neurontin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), phenytoin (Dilantin), and others.

Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Common sage (Salvia officinalis) might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking common sage along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.

Sedative medications (CNS depressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Sage might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking sage along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

Various medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions (Cholinergic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Common sage (Salvia officinalis) and Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase certain chemicals in the brain, heart, and elsewhere in the body. Some medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions also affect these chemicals. Taking these species of sage with these medications might increase the chance of side effects.

Some of these medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions include pilocarpine (Pilocar and others), donepezil (Aricept), tacrine (Cognex), and others.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For treating Alzheimer's disease: 1 gram of sage per day. A dose of sage extract, gradually increased over time to 2.5 mg three times daily, has also been used.
  • For treatment of herpes labialis (cold sores): A cream containing 23 mg/gram each of sage extract and rhubarb extract has been applied every 2 to 4 hours while awake, with treatment starting within 1 day of the first symptoms and continuing for 10 to 14 days.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Abdel-Fatah, M. K., El-Hawa, M. A., Samia, E. M., Rabie, G., and Amer, A. M. Antimicrobial activities of some local medicinal plants. J Drug Res. 2002;24:179-186.

Adams, M., Gmunder, F., and Hamburger, M. Plants traditionally used in age related brain disorders--a survey of ethnobotanical literature. J Ethnopharmacol 9-25-2007;113(3):363-381. View abstract.

Aherne, S. A., Kerry, J. P., and O'Brien, N. M. Effects of plant extracts on antioxidant status and oxidant-induced stress in Caco-2 cells. Br.J Nutr 2007;97(2):321-328. View abstract.

Akhondzadeh, S. and Abbasi, S. H. Herbal medicine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Am J Alzheimers.Dis Other Demen. 2006;21(2):113-118. View abstract.

Amin, A. and Hamza, A. A. Hepatoprotective effects of Hibiscus, Rosmarinus and Salvia on azathioprine-induced toxicity in rats. Life Sci 6-3-2005;77(3):266-278. View abstract.

Anackov, G., Bozin, B., Zoric, L., Vukov, D., Mimica-Dukic, N., Merkulov, L., Igic, R., Jovanovic, M., and Boza, P. Chemical composition of essential oil and leaf anatomy of Salvia bertolonii Vis. and Salvia pratensis L. (Sect. Plethiosphace, Lamiaceae). Molecules. 2009;14(1):1-9. View abstract.

Atapour, M., Zahedi, M. J., Mehrabani, M., Safavi, M., Foroumadi, A, and et al. In vitro susceptibility of the Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Iranian medicinal plants. Pharm Bio 2009;47:77-80.

Bailly, F., Queffelec, C., Mbemba, G., Mouscadet, J. F., and Cotelle, P. Synthesis and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory activities of caffeic acid dimers derived from Salvia officinalis. Bioorg.Med Chem.Lett. 11-15-2005;15(22):5053-5056. View abstract.

Baricevic, D., Sosa, S., Della, Loggia R., Tubaro, A., Simonovska, B., Krasna, A., and Zupancic, A. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;75(2-3):125-132. View abstract.

Basilico, M. Z. and Basilico, J. C. Inhibitory effects of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 growth and ochratoxin A production. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 1999;29(4):238-241. View abstract.

Ben Farhat, M., Jordan, M. J., Chaouech-Hamada, R., Landoulsi, A., and Sotomayor, J. A. Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-11-2009;57(21):10349-10356. View abstract.

Bisset, N. G. Max Wichtl Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. Boca Raton: CRC Press;1994.

Blomhoff, R. [Antioxidants and oxidative stress]. Tidsskr.Nor Laegeforen. 6-17-2004;124(12):1643-1645. View abstract.

Bodiroga, T., Bodiroga, M., and Ognjanovic, J. Etheric oils in aromatherapia in Yugoslavia. Int Pharm Fed World Cong 2002;62:135.

Boelens, M. H. and Boelens, H. Chemical and sensory evaluation of three sage oils. Perfumer & Flavorist 1997;22:19-40.

Bol'shakova, I. V., Lozovskaia, E. L., and Sapezhinskii, I. I. [Antioxidant properties of plant extracts]. Biofizika 1998;43(2):186-188. View abstract.

Boszormenyi, A., Hethelyi, E., Farkas, A., Horvath, G., Papp, N., Lemberkovics, E., and Szoke, E. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.). J Agric.Food Chem. 6-10-2009;57(11):4663-4667. View abstract.

Bouaziz, M., Yangui, T., Sayadi, S., and Dhouib, A. Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(11):2755-2760. View abstract.

Bozin, B., Mimica-Dukic, N., Samojlik, I., and Jovin, E. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) essential oils. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-19-2007;55(19):7879-7885. View abstract.

Brieskorn, C. H. and Biechele, W. [Flavones from Salvia officinalis L. 22. Components of Salvia off. L]. Arch Pharm Ber.Dtsch Pharm Ges. 1971;304(8):557-561. View abstract.

Brieskorn, C. H. and Biechele, W. Differentiation of Salvia officinalis and Salvia triloba. Deutshe Apotheker-Zeitung 1971;111:141-142.

Brieskorn, C. H. and EBERHARDT, K. H. [Oxytriterpenic acids of sage oil. 9. Constituents of Salvia officinalis L..]. Arch.Pharm.Ber.Dtsch.Pharm.Ges. 1953;286(3):124-129. View abstract.

Brieskorn, C. H. and Glasz, J. [Salvia glycoprotein, a water soluble protein material from the seeds of Salvia officinalis L. 19. On the contents of Salvia officinalis L.]. Pharmazie 1965;20(6):382-384. View abstract.

Brieskorn, C. H. and Kapadia, Z. Bestandteile von Salvia officinalis XXIV: Triterpenalkohole, Triterpensauren und Pristan im Blatt von Salvia officinalis L. Planta Med 1980;38:86-90.

Brieskorn, C. H. and Kapadia, Z. Constituents of Salvia officinalis XXIII: 5-methoxysalvigenin in leaves of Salvia officinalis. Planta Med 1979;35:376-378.

Brieskorn, C. H. Salbei - seine Inhaltsstoffe und sein therapeutischer Wert. Z Phytotherapie 1991;(12):-61.

Burgar, M. I., Karba, D., and Kikelj, D. 13 C NMR analysis of essential oil of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis). Farm Vestn 1979;30:253-261.

Capek, P. and Hribalova, V. Water-soluble polysaccharides from Salvia officinalis L. possessing immunomodulatory activity. Phytochemistry 2004;65(13):1983-1992. View abstract.

Capek, P., Hribalova, V., Svandova, E., Ebringerova, A., Sasinkova, V., and Masarova, J. Characterization of immunomodulatory polysaccharides from Salvia officinalis L. Int J Biol.Macromol. 2003;33(1-3):113-119. View abstract.

Capek, P., Machova, E., and Turjan, J. Scavenging and antioxidant activities of immunomodulating polysaccharides isolated from Salvia officinalis L. Int J Biol.Macromol. 1-1-2009;44(1):75-80. View abstract.

Carrasco, F. R., Schmidt, G., Romero, A. L., Sartoretto, J. L., Caparroz-Assef, S. M., Bersani-Amado, C. A., and Cuman, R. K. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2009;61(7):961-967. View abstract.

Celik, I. and Isik, I. Determination of chemopreventive role of Foeniculum vulgare and Salvia officinalis infusion on trichloroacetic acid-induced increased serum marker enzymes lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense systems in rats. Nat.Prod.Res 1-10-2008;22(1):66-75. View abstract.

Croteau, R. and Purkett, P. T. Geranyl pyrophosphate synthase: characterization of the enzyme and evidence that this chain-length specific prenyltransferase is associated with monoterpene biosynthesis in sage (Salvia officinalis). Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 1989;271(2):524-535. View abstract.

Croteau, R. and Satterwhite, D. M. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemical implications of acyclic and monocyclic olefin formation by (+)- and (-)-pinene cyclases from sage. J Biol.Chem. 9-15-1989;264(26):15309-15315. View abstract.

Croteau, R. B., Shaskus, J. J., Renstrom, B., Felton, N. M., Cane, D. E., Saito, A., and Chang, C. Mechanism of the pyrophosphate migration in the enzymatic cyclization of geranyl and linalyl pyrophosphates to (+)- and (-)-bornyl pyrophosphates. Biochemistry 12-3-1985;24(25):7077-7085. View abstract.

Croteau, R. B., Wheeler, C. J., Cane, D. E., Ebert, R., and Ha, H. J. Isotopically sensitive branching in the formation of cyclic monoterpenes: proof that (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene are synthesized by the same monoterpene cyclase via deprotonation of a common intermediate. Biochemistry 8-25-1987;26(17):5383-5389. View abstract.

Croteau, R., El Bialy, H., and Dehal, S. S. Metabolism of Monoterpenes : Metabolic Fate of (+)-Camphor in Sage (Salvia officinalis). Plant Physiol 1987;84(3):643-648. View abstract.

Croteau, R., El-Bialy, H., and El-Hindawi, S. Metabolism of monoterpenes: lactonization of (+)-camphor and conversion of the corresponding hydroxyl acid to the glucoside-glucose ester in sage (Salvia officinalis). Arch Biochem Biophys 1984;228:667-680.

Croteau, R., Felton, M., Karp, F., and Kjonaas, R. Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis). Plant Physiol 1981;67(4):820-824. View abstract.

Croteau, R., Satterwhite, D. M., Cane, D. E., and Chang, C. C. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the enzymatic cyclization of (+)- and (-)-linalyl pyrophosphate to (+)- and (-)-pinene and (+)- and (-)-camphene. J Biol.Chem. 7-25-1988;263(21):10063-10071. View abstract.

Croteau, R., Satterwhite, D. M., Wheeler, C. J., and Felton, N. M. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemistry of the enzymatic cyclizations of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene. J Biol.Chem. 2-5-1989;264(4):2075-2080. View abstract.

Cwikla, C., Schmidt, K., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Lehmann, R., and Tiralongo, E. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother.Res 2010;24(5):649-656. View abstract.

Czarnecki, M., Dedio, I., Krysiuk, W., and Zalecki, R. Effect of the cultivation methods on crops and on the essential oil content in Herba salviae officinalis L. one year crop. Herba Polonica 1992;38:29-36.

da Rocha, M. D., Viegas, F. P., Campos, H. C., Nicastro, P. C., Fossaluzza, P. C., Fraga, C. A., Barreiro, E. J., and Viegas, C., Jr. The role of natural products in the discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders II: Alzheimer's disease. CNS.Neurol.Disord.Drug Targets. 2011;10(2):251-270. View abstract.

Daniela, T. [Salvia officinalis l. I. Botanic characteristics, composition, use and cultivation]. Cesk.Farm. 1993;42(3):111-116. View abstract.

De, Leo, V, Lanzetta, D., Cazzavacca, R., and Morgante, G. [Treatment of neurovegetative menopausal symptoms with a phytotherapeutic agent]. Minerva Ginecol. 1998;50(5):207-211. View abstract.

Dehal, S. S. and Croteau, R. Metabolism of monoterpenes: specificity of the dehydrogenases responsible for the biosynthesis of camphor, 3-thujone, and 3-isothujone. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 1987;258(1):287-291. View abstract.

Dehal, S. S. and Croteau, R. Partial purification and characterization of two sesquiterpene cyclases from sage (Salvia officinalis) which catalyze the respective conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to humulene and caryophyllene. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 1988;261(2):346-356. View abstract.

Demo, A., Petrakis, C., Kefalas, P., and Boskou, D. Nutrient antioxidants in some herbs and Mediterranean plant leaves. Food Res Int 1998;31(5):351-354.

Dos Santos-Neto, L. L., Vilhena Toledo, M. A., Medeiros-Souza, P., and de Souza, G. A. The use of herbal medicine in Alzheimer's disease-a systematic review. Evid.Based.Complement Alternat.Med 2006;3(4):441-445. View abstract.

Dragland, S., Senoo, H., Wake, K., Holte, K., and Blomhoff, R. Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants. J Nutr 2003;133(5):1286-1290. View abstract.

Dudai, N., Lewinsohn, E., Larkov, O., Katzir, I., Ravid, U., Chaimovitsh, D., Sa'adi, D., and Putievsky, E. Dynamics of yield components and essential oil production in a commercial hybrid sage (Salvia officinalis x Salvia fruticosa cv. Newe Ya'ar no. 4). J.Agric.Food Chem. 1999;47(10):4341-4345. View abstract.

Ebringerova, A., Kardosova, A., Hromadkova, Z., and Hribalova, V. Mitogenic and comitogenic activities of polysaccharides from some European herbaceous plants. Fitoterapia 2003;74(1-2):52-61. View abstract.

Eidi, M., Eidi, A., and Bahar, M. Effects of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) leaves on memory retention and its interaction with the cholinergic system in rats. Nutrition 2006;22(3):321-326. View abstract.

Eidi, M., Eidi, A., and Zamanizadeh, H. Effect of Salvia officinalis L. leaves on serum glucose and insulin in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 9-14-2005;100(3):310-313. View abstract.

Falk, K. L., Gershenzon, J., and Croteau, R. Metabolism of Monoterpenes in Cell Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) : Biochemical Rationale for the Lack of Monoterpene Accumulation. Plant Physiol 1990;93(4):1559-1567. View abstract.

Farhat, G. N., Affara, N. I., and Gali-Muhtasib, H. U. Seasonal changes in the composition of the essential oil extract of east mediterranean sage (Salvia libanotica) and its toxicity in mice. Toxicon 2001;39(10):1601-1605.

Fehr, D. Investigation of the stability of salvia leaves in storage. Pharmazeutische Zeitung 1982;127:111-114.

Feres, M., Figueiredo, L. C., Barreto, I. M., Coelho, M. H., Araujo, M. W., and Cortelli, S. C. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and propolis in saliva samples of healthy and periodontally-involved subjects. J Int.Acad.Periodontol. 2005;7(3):90-96. View abstract.

Ferreira, A., Proenca, C., Serralheiro, M. L., and Araujo, M. E. The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal. J Ethnopharmacol. 11-3-2006;108(1):31-37. View abstract.

Fortes, C., Forastiere, F., Farchi, S., Mallone, S., Trequattrinni, T., Anatra, F., Schmid, G., and Perucci, C. A. The protective effect of the Mediterranean diet on lung cancer. Nutr Cancer 2003;46(1):30-37. View abstract.

Frechette, D. Recurrence of convulsions associated with sage. Quebec Pharmacie 2004;51(428):432.

Funk, C. and Croteau, R. Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis). Plant Physiol 1993;101(4):1231-1237. View abstract.

Funk, C., Koepp, A. E., and Croteau, R. Catabolism of camphor in tissue cultures and leaf disks of common sage (Salvia officinalis). Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 1992;294(1):306-313. View abstract.

Futrell, J. M. and Rietschel, R. L. Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests. Cutis 1993;52(5):288-290. View abstract.

Gambliel, H. and Croteau, R. Biosynthesis of (+/-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene from geranyl pyrophosphate by a soluble enzyme system from sage (Salvia officinalis). J Biol.Chem. 3-10-1982;257(5):2335-2342. View abstract.

Geuenich, S., Goffinet, C., Venzke, S., Nolkemper, S., Baumann, I., Plinkert, P., Reichling, J., and Keppler, O. T. Aqueous extracts from peppermint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density. Retrovirology. 2008;5:27. View abstract.

Grzunov, K., Mastelic, J., and Ruzic, N. Identification of aglycones of b-D-glucosides from the leaves of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis). Acta Pharm Jugosl 1985;35:175-179.

Guaschino, S. and Benvenuti, C. SOPHY project: an observational study of vaginal pH, lifestyle and correct intimate hygiene in women of different ages and in different physiopathological conditions. Part II. Minerva Ginecol. 2008;60(5):353-362. View abstract.

Halicioglu, O., Astarcioglu, G., Yaprak, I., and Aydinlioglu, H. Toxicity of Salvia officinalis in a newborn and a child: an alarming report. Pediatr.Neurol. 2011;45(4):259-260. View abstract.

Hannah, K., Day, A., O'Neill, S., Patterson, C., and Lyons-Wall, P. Does scientific evidence support the use of non-prescription supplements for treatment of acute menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes? Nutrition & Dietetics 2005;62(4):138-151.

Hayouni, el A., Chraief, I., Abedrabba, M., Bouix, M., Leveau, J. Y., Mohammed, H., and Hamdi, M. Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat. Int J Food Microbiol. 7-31-2008;125(3):242-251. View abstract.

Hellum, B. H. and Nilsen, O. G. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by trade herbal products. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;102(5):466-475. View abstract.

Hohmann, J., Zupko, I., Redei, D., Csanyi, M., Falkay, G., Mathe, I., and Janicsak, G. Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa Officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta Med 1999;65(6):576-578. View abstract.

Hold, K. M., Sirisoma, N. S., Ikeda, T., Narahashi, T., and Casida, J. E. Alpha-thujone (the active component of absinthe): gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;(97):3826-3831.

Horiuchi, K., Shiota, S., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., Kuroda, T., and Tsuchiya, T. Antimicrobial activity of oleanolic acid from Salvia officinalis and related compounds on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2007;30(6):1147-1149. View abstract.

Horiuchi, K., Shiota, S., Kuroda, T., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., and Tsuchiya, T. Potentiation of antimicrobial activity of aminoglycosides by carnosol from Salvia officinalis. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2007;30(2):287-290. View abstract.

Howes, M. J. and Perry, E. The role of phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of dementia. Drugs Aging 6-1-2011;28(6):439-468. View abstract.

Hromadkova, Z., Ebringerova, A., and Valachovic, P. Comparison of classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Salvia officinalis L. Ultrason.Sonochem. 1999;5(4):163-168. View abstract.

Hubbert, M., Sievers, H., Lehnfeld, R., and Kehrl, W. Efficacy and tolerability of a spray with Salvia officinalis in the treatment of acute pharyngitis - a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with adaptive design and interim analysis. Eur J Med Res 1-31-2006;11(1):20-26. View abstract.

Hunerbein, H. and Keller, K. Drug assay in pharmacies. Part 6. Communication. Pharmazeutische Zeitung 1981;126:1088-1089.

Hunerbein, H. and Keller, K. Drug assay in pharmacies. Part 7. Communication: identity of sage oil. Pharmazeutische Zeitung 1981;126:1237-1239.

Iuvone, T., De Filippis, D., Esposito, G., D'Amico, A., and Izzo, A. A. The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;317(3):1143-1149. View abstract.

Ivanic, R., Savin, K., Robinson, F., and Milchard, M. J. Gas chromatographic examination of volatile oil from Salvia officinalis L. Acta Pharm Jugosl 1978;28:65-69.

Jalsenjak, V., Peljnjak, S., and Kustrak, D. Microcapsules of sage oil: essential oils content and antimicrobial activity. Pharmazie 1987;42(6):419-420. View abstract.

Jaswir, I., Che Man, Y. B., and Hassan, T. H. Performance of phytochemical antioxidant systems in refined-bleached-deodorized palm olein during frying. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2005;14(4):402-413. View abstract.

Jedinak, A., Muckova, M., Kost'alova, D., Maliar, T., and Masterova, I. Antiprotease and antimetastatic activity of ursolic acid isolated from Salvia officinalis. Z Naturforsch.C. 2006;61(11-12):777-782. View abstract.

Jerkovic, I., Mastelic, J., and Marijanovic, Z. A variety of volatile compounds as markers in unifloral honey from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Chem.Biodivers. 2006;3(12):1307-1316. View abstract.

Johnson, J. J. Carnosol: a promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent. Cancer Lett. 6-1-2011;305(1):1-7. View abstract.

Juhas, S., Cikos, S., Czikkova, S., Vesela, J., Il'kova, G., Hajek, T., Domaracka, K., Domaracky, M., Bujnakova, D., Rehak, P., and Koppel, J. Effects of borneol and thymoquinone on TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Folia Biol.(Praha) 2008;54(1):1-7. View abstract.

Karakaya, S., El, S. N., and Tas, A. A. Antioxidant activity of some foods containing phenolic compounds. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2001;52(6):501-508. View abstract.

Karl, C., Pedersen, P. A., and Muller, G. Occurrence of viridiflorol in Salvia officinalis. Planta Med 1982;44(188):189.

Karp, F., Harris, J. L., and Croteau, R. Metabolism of monoterpenes: demonstration of the hydroxylation of (+)-sabinene to (+)-cis-sabinol by an enzyme preparation from sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 1987;256(1):179-193. View abstract.

Kavvadias, D., Monschein, V., Sand, P., Riederer, P., and Schreier, P. Constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis) with in vitro affinity to human brain benzodiazepine receptor. Planta Med. 2003;69(2):113-117. View abstract.

Kedzia, B., Segiet-Kujawa, E., Holderna, E., and Krzyzaniak, M. Chemical content and antimicroorganism activity of sage essential oil (Ol. Salviae). Herba Polonica 1990;36:155-164.

Kennedy, D. O. and Scholey, A. B. The psychopharmacology of European herbs with cognition-enhancing properties. Curr Pharm Des 2006;12(35):4613-4623. View abstract.

Kennedy, D. O. and Wightman, E. L. Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: plant secondary metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function. Adv.Nutr. 2011;2(1):32-50. View abstract.

Kennedy, D. O., Dodd, F. L., Robertson, B. C., Okello, E. J., Reay, J. L., Scholey, A. B., and Haskell, C. F. Monoterpenoid extract of sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) with cholinesterase inhibiting properties improves cognitive performance and mood in healthy adults. J.Psychopharmacol. 2011;25(8):1088-1100. View abstract.

Kennedy, D. O., Pace, S., Haskell, C., Okello, E. J., Milne, A., and Scholey, A. B. Effects of cholinesterase inhibiting sage (Salvia officinalis) on mood, anxiety and performance on a psychological stressor battery. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;31(4):845-852. View abstract.

Kianbakht, S., Abasi, B., Perham, M., and Hashem, Dabaghian F. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract in patients with hyperlipidemia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother.Res. 2011;25(12):1849-1853. View abstract.

Kiefl, B. and Franz, G. Investigation of the stability of sage leaves and fennel fruits. Die Pharmazie 1999;54:385-394.

Kim, S. Y., Park, E., Park, J. A., Choi, B. S., Kim, S., Jeong, G., Kim, C. S., Kim, do K., Kim, S. J., and Chun, H. S. The plant phenolic diterpene carnosol suppresses sodium nitroprusside-induced toxicity in c6 glial cells. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-10-2010;58(3):1543-1550. View abstract.

Kliachko, L. L., Ankhimova, E. S., Svitina, N. N., and Iaremenko, K. V. [The effect of medicinal herbs on lymphocyte rosette-forming function]. Vestn.Otorinolaringol. 1994;(2):31-33. View abstract.


Konishi, Y., Hitomi, Y., Yoshida, M., and Yoshioka, E. Pharmacokinetic study of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in rats after oral administration. J Agric Food Chem 6-15-2005;53(12):4740-4746. View abstract.

Kustrak, D. and Pepljnjak, S. Antimicrobial activity of Dalmatian sage oil from different regions of the Yugoslav Adriatic coast. Acta Pharm.Jugosl. 1989;39:209-213.

Kustrak, D. Greek sage in a Dalmatian plant. Pharm Acta Helv. 1987;62:7-13.

Kustrak, D. Sage hybrid Salvia officinalis L. subspecies minor f. auriculata. Pharm Acta Helv. 1988;63:254-256.

Kustrak, D., Kuftinec, J., and Blazevic, N. Yields and composition of sage oils from different regions of the Yugoslavian Adriatic coast. J Nat Prod 1984;47:520-524.

Kwon, Y. I., Vattem, D. A., and Shetty, K. Evaluation of clonal herbs of Lamiaceae species for management of diabetes and hypertension. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2006;15(1):107-118. View abstract.

Lalicevic, S. and Djordjevic, I. Comparison of benzydamine hydrochloride and Salvia officinalis as an adjuvant local treatment to systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in controlling pain after tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both: An open-label, single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 2004;65:360-372.

Lawrence, B. M. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer & Flavorist 1991;16:49-55.

Lawrence, B. M. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer & Flavorist 1998;23(March/April):47-57.

LE MEN, J. and POURRAT, H. [The presence of ursolic acid in the leaves of Vinca minor L., Nerium oleander L. and Salvia officinalis L.]. Ann.Pharm.Fr. 1952;10(5):349-351. View abstract.

Lemberkovics, E. and Verzar-Petri, G. Data on the gas chromatographic examination of pharmacopeial volatile oil drugs and volatile oils. Acta Pharm Hung 1978;48:122-130.

Lemberkovics, E., Kery, A., Simandi, B., Kakasy, A., Balazs, A., Hethelyi, E., and Szoke, E. [Influence of extraction methods on the composition of essential oils]. Acta Pharm Hung. 2004;74(3):166-170. View abstract.

Li, J. T., Dong, J. E., Liang, Z. S., Shu, Z. M., and Wan, G. W. [Distributional difference of fat-soluble compounds in the roots, stems and leaves of four Salvia plants]. Fen.Zi.Xi.Bao.Sheng Wu Xue.Bao. 2008;41(1):44-52. View abstract.

Lima, C. F., Andrade, P. B., Seabra, R. M., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. The drinking of a Salvia officinalis infusion improves liver antioxidant status in mice and rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-28-2005;97(2):383-389. View abstract.

Lima, C. F., Azevedo, M. F., Araujo, R., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Metformin-like effect of Salvia officinalis (common sage): is it useful in diabetes prevention? Br.J Nutr 2006;96(2):326-333. View abstract.

Lima, C. F., Carvalho, F., Fernandes, E., Bastos, M. L., Santos-Gomes, P. C., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Evaluation of toxic/protective effects of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis on freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol.In Vitro 2004;18(4):457-465. View abstract.

Lima, C. F., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Drinking of Salvia officinalis tea increases CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45(3):456-464. View abstract.

Lima, C. F., Valentao, P. C., Andrade, P. B., Seabra, R. M., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Water and methanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis protect HepG2 cells from t-BHP induced oxidative damage. Chem Biol Interact. 4-25-2007;167(2):107-115. View abstract.

Loizzo, M. R., Tundis, R., Menichini, F., Saab, A. M., Statti, G. A., and Menichini, F. Cytotoxic activity of essential oils from labiatae and lauraceae families against in vitro human tumor models. Anticancer Res 2007;27(5A):3293-3299. View abstract.

Lopez-Bote, C. J., Gray, J. I., Gomaa, E. A., and Flegal, C. J. Effect of dietary administration of oil extracts from rosemary and sage on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. Br.Poult.Sci. 1998;39(2):235-240. View abstract.

Lovenich, H., Schutt-Gerowitt, H., Keulertz, C., Waldschmidt, D., Bethe, U., Sohngen, D., and Cornely, O. A. Failure of anti-infective mouth rinses and concomitant antibiotic prophylaxis to decrease oral mucosal colonization in autologous stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;35(10):997-1001. View abstract.

Lu, Y. and Foo, L. Y. Flavonoid and phenolic glycosides from Salvia officinalis. Phytochemistry 2000;55(3):263-267. View abstract.

Lu, Y. and Foo, L. Y. Flavonoid and phenolic glycosides from Salvia officinalis. Phytochemistry 2000;55(3):263-267. View abstract.

Lu, Y. and Foo, L. Y. Flavonoid and phenolic glycosides from Salvia officinalis. Phytochemistry 2000;55:263-267.

Lu, Y. and Foo, L. Y. Rosmarinic acid derivatives from Salvia officinalis. Phytochemistry 1999;51:91-94.

Lu, Y., Foo, L. Y., and Wong, H. Sagecoumarin, a novel caffeic acid trimer from Salvia officinalis. Phytochemistry 1999;52:1149-1152.

Maccioni, A. M., Anchisi, C., Sanna, A., Sardu, C., and Dessi, S. Preservative systems containing essential oils in cosmetic products. Int J Cosmet.Sci 2002;24(1):53-59. View abstract.

Malencic, D., Gasic, O., Popovic, M., and Boza, P. Screening for antioxidant properties of Salvia reflexa hornem. Phytother Res 2000;14(7):546-548. View abstract.

Mantle, D., Pickering, A. T., and Perry, E. K. Medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of dementia: A review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. CNS Drugs 2000;13(3):201-213.

Masterova, I., Misikova, E., Sirotkova, L., Vaverkova, S., and Ubik, K. [Royleanones in the roots of Salvia officinalis L. of domestic provenance and their antimicrobial activity]. Ceska.Slov.Farm. 1996;45(5):242-245. View abstract.

Masuda, T., Inaba, Y., and Takeda, Y. Antioxidant mechanism of carnosic acid: structural identification of two oxidation products. J Agric.Food Chem. 2001;49(11):5560-5565. View abstract.

Masuda, T., Inaba, Y., Maekawa, T., Takeda, Y., Tamura, H., and Yamaguchi, H. Recovery mechanism of the antioxidant activity from carnosic acid quinone, an oxidized sage and rosemary antioxidant. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-9-2002;50(21):5863-5869. View abstract.

Masuda, T., Kirikihira, T., and Takeda, Y. Recovery of antioxidant activity from carnosol quinone: antioxidants obtained from a water-promoted conversion of carnosol quinone. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-24-2005;53(17):6831-6834. View abstract.

Mathe, I., Hohmann, J., Janicsak, G., Nagy, G., and Dora, R. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species]. Acta Pharm.Hung. 2007;77(1):37-45. View abstract.

Matsingou, T. C., Petrakis, N., Kapsokefalou, M., and Salifoglou, A. Antioxidant activity of organic extracts from aqueous infusions of sage. J Agric.Food Chem 11-5-2003;51(23):6696-6701. View abstract.

Mayer, B., Baggio, C. H., Freitas, C. S., dos Santos, A. C., Twardowschy, A., Horst, H., Pizzolatti, M. G., Micke, G. A., Heller, M., dos Santos, E. P., Otuki, M. F., and Marques, M. C. Gastroprotective constituents of Salvia officinalis L. Fitoterapia 2009;80(7):421-426. View abstract.

Mayer, E., Gescheidt-Shoshany, H., and Weltfriend, S. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Salvia officinalis extract. Contact Dermatitis 2011;64(4):237-238. View abstract.

McGeady, P. and Croteau, R. Isolation and characterization of an active-site peptide from a monoterpene cyclase labeled with a mechanism-based inhibitor. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 2-20-1995;317(1):149-155. View abstract.

Miladinovic, D., Djujic, I., and Stankovic, S. Variation of selenium content in growing wild plants during vegetative period. J Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.Oncol. 1998;17(3-4):217-220. View abstract.

Millet, Y., Tognetti, P., Lavaire-Pierovisi, M., Steinmetz, M-D., Arditti, J., and Jouglard, J. Etude experimentale des proprietes toxiques convulsivantes des essences de sauge et d'hysope du commerce. Rev EEG Neurophysiol 1979;(9):-12.

Millet, Y., Tognetti, P., Steinmetz, M. D., Joanny, P., and Jouglard, J. Study of the toxicity of essential vegetable oils: hyssop oil and sage oil. Med.Leg.Toxicol. 1980;23:9-21.

Miura, K., Kikuzaki, H., and Nakatani, N. Antioxidant activity of chemical components from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) measured by the oil stability index method. J Agric.Food Chem 3-27-2002;50(7):1845-1851. View abstract.

Miura, K., Kikuzaki, H., and Nakatani, N. Apianane terpenoids from Salvia officinalis. Phytochemistry 2001;58(8):1171-1175. View abstract.

Molochko, V. A., Lastochkina, T. M., Krylov, I. A., and Brangulis, K. A. [The antistaphylococcal properties of plant extracts in relation to their prospective use as therapeutic and prophylactic formulations for the skin]. Vestn.Dermatol Venerol. 1990;(8):54-56. View abstract.

Moss, L., Rouse, M., Wesnes, K. A., and Moss, M. Differential effects of the aromas of Salvia species on memory and mood. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2010;25(5):388-396. View abstract.

Muhlbauer, R. C., Lozano, A., Palacio, S., Reinli, A., and Felix, R. Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism. Bone 2003;32(4):372-380. View abstract.

Munne-Bosch, S. and Alegre, L. Drought-induced changes in the redox state of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, and the diterpene carnosic acid in chloroplasts of Labiatae species differing in carnosic acid contents. Plant Physiol 2003;131(4):1816-1825. View abstract.

Munne-Bosch, S. and Cela, J. Effects of water deficit on photosystem II photochemistry and photoprotection during acclimation of lyreleaf safe (Salvia lyrata L.) plnats to high light. Photochem Photobiol B 2006;3:191-197.

NICHOLAS, H. J. Biosynthesis of beta-sitosterol and pentacyclic triterpenes of Salvia officinalis. J Biol.Chem. 1962;237:1476-1480. View abstract.

Nickavar, B., Abolhasani, L, and Izadpanah, H. alpha-Amylase inhibitory activities of six Salvia species. Iranian J Pharma.Res. 2008;7:297-303.

No authors listed. Herbal medicines for menopausal symptoms. Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 2009;47:2-6.

Nolkemper, S., Reichling, J., Stintzing, F. C., Carle, R., and Schnitzler, P. Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Planta Med 2006;72(15):1378-1382. View abstract.

O'Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507. View abstract.

Oboh, G. and Henle, T. Antioxidant and inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves on pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver in vitro. J Med Food 2009;12(1):77-84. View abstract.

Olsen, R. W. Absinthe and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. PNAS USA 2000;97(9):4417-4418.

Oniga, I., Parvu, A. E., Toiu, A., and Benedec, D. Effects of Salvia officinalis L. extract on experimental acute inflammation. Rev.Med Chir Soc.Med Nat.Iasi 2007;111(1):290-294. View abstract.

Orhan, I. and Aslan, M. Appraisal of scopolamine-induced antiamnesic effect in mice and in vitro antiacetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities of some traditionally used Lamiaceae plants. J.Ethnopharmacol. 3-18-2009;122(2):327-332. View abstract.

Orhan, I., Kartal, M., Kan, Y., and Sener, B. Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. Z.Naturforsch.C. 2008;63(7-8):547-553. View abstract.

Osawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Yasuda, H., Kato, T., Naito, Y., and Okuda, K. The inhibitory effect of plant extracts on the collagenolytic activity and cytotoxicity of human gingival fibroblasts by Porphyromonas gingivalis crude enzyme. Bull.Tokyo Dent Coll. 1991;32(1):1-7. View abstract.

Papageorgiou, V., Gardeli, C., Mallouchos, A., Papaioannou, M., and Komaitis, M. Variation of the chemical profile and antioxidant behavior of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia fruticosa Miller grown in Greece. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-27-2008;56(16):7254-7264. View abstract.

Pavela, R. Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 2004;75(7-8):745-749. View abstract.

Pavlenko, L. V., Mashkovskii, N. N., and Smirnov, V. V. [Effect of salvin on the incorporation of labeled precursors into macromolecular compounds of Staphylococcus aureus 209P]. Antibiot.Khimioter. 1989;34(8):582-585. View abstract.

Pavlenko, L. V., Stepaniuk, V. V., Volosovets, P. S., and Smirnov, V. V. [The effect of salvin on the growth and ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus 209P]. Mikrobiol.Zh. 1989;51(2):86-91. View abstract.

Pecorari, P., Melegari, M., Vampa, G., Albasini, A., and Rinaldi, M. Research on medicinal plants from Modena (Appennines). Cultivated Plants. Part 4. Essential oils from plants belonging to the genus Salvia. Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico 1980;119:584-590.

Pereira, P., Tysca, D., Oliveira, P., da Silva Brum, L. F., Picada, J. N., and Ardenghi, P. Neurobehavioral and genotoxic aspects of rosmarinic acid. Pharmacol.Res. 2005;52(3):199-203. View abstract.

Pereira, R. S., Sumita, T. C., Furlan, M. R., Jorge, A. O., and Ueno, M. [Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection]. Rev Saude Publica 2004;38(2):326-328. View abstract.

Perry, E. and Howes, M. J. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging? CNS.Neurosci.Ther 2011;17(6):683-698. View abstract.

Perry, E. K., Pickering, A. T., Wang, W. W., Houghton, P. J., and Perry, N. S. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51(5):527-534. View abstract.

Perry, E. K., Pickering, A. T., Wang, W. W., Houghton, P., and Perry, N. S. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: Integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific evidence. J Altern Complement Med 1998;4(4):419-428. View abstract.

Perry, N. S., Houghton, P. J., Sampson, J., Theobald, A. E., Hart, S., Lis-Balchin, M., Hoult, J. R., Evans, P., Jenner, P., Milligan, S., and Perry, E. K. In-vitro activity of S. lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) relevant to treatment of Alzheimer's disease. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53(10):1347-1356. View abstract.

Perry, N. S., Houghton, P. J., Theobald, A., Jenner, P., and Perry, E. K. In-vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase by salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil and constituent terpenes. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000;52(7):895-902. View abstract.

Perry, N., Court, G., Bidet, N., Court, J., and Perry, E. European herbs with cholinergic activities: Potential in dementia. Int J Ger Psych 1996;11(12):1063-1069.

Pinto-Scognamiglio, W. Connaissances actuelles sur l'activite pharmacodynamique de la thuyone, aromatisant naturel d'un emploi etendu. Boll Chim Farm 1967;(106):-292.

Pitarevic, I., Kuftinec, J., Blazevic, N., and Kustrak, D. Seasonal variation of essential oil yield and composition of Dalmatian sage, Salvia officinalis. J Nat Prod 1984;47:409-412.

Pitten, F. A. and Kramer, A. Antimicrobial efficacy of antiseptic mouthrinse solutions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55(2):95-100. View abstract.

Poeckel, D., Greiner, C., Verhoff, M., Rau, O., Tausch, L., Hornig, C., Steinhilber, D., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M., and Werz, O. Carnosic acid and carnosol potently inhibit human 5-lipoxygenase and suppress pro-inflammatory responses of stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Biochem.Pharmacol 7-1-2008;76(1):91-97. View abstract.

Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., and Alves, S. H. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54(11):950-956. View abstract.

Putievsky, E., Ravid, U., and Dudai, N. Influence of season and harvest frequency on essential oil and herbal yields from a pure clone of sage (Salvia officinalis) grown under cultivated conditions. J Nat Prod 1986;49:326-329.

Qiang, Z., Ye, Z., Hauck, C., Murphy, P. A., McCoy, J. A., Widrlechner, M. P., Reddy, M. B., and Hendrich, S. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers. J.Ethnopharmacol. 10-11-2011;137(3):1107-1112. View abstract.

Raal, A., Orav, A., and Arak, E. Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries. Nat.Prod.Res 2007;21(5):406-411. View abstract.

Radtke, O. A., Foo, L. Y., Lu, Y., Kiderlen, A. F., and Kolodziej, H. Evaluation of sage phenolics for their antileishmanial activity and modulatory effects on interleukin-6, interferon and tumour necrosis factor-alpha-release in RAW 264.7 cells. Z.Naturforsch.[C.] 2003;58(5-6):395-400. View abstract.

Raic, D., Novina, R., and Petricic, J. Contribution to quantity and composition assays of essential oil in dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Acta Pharm Jugosl 1985;35:121-125.

Rau, O., Wurglics, M., Paulke, A., Zitzkowski, J., Meindl, N., Bock, A., Dingermann, T., Abdel-Tawab, M., and Schubert-Zsilavecz, M. Carnosic Acid and Carnosol, Phenolic Diterpene Compounds of the Labiate Herbs Rosemary and Sage, are Activators of the Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma. Planta Med 2006;72(10):881-887. View abstract.

Renzulli, C., Galvano, F., Pierdomenico, L., Speroni, E., and Guerra, M. C. Effects of rosmarinic acid against aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin-A-induced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2). J Appl Toxicol 2004;24(4):289-296. View abstract.

Reuter, J., Jocher, A., Hornstein, S., Monting, J. S., and Schempp, C. M. Sage extract rich in phenolic diterpenes inhibits ultraviolet-induced erythema in vivo. Planta Med 2007;73(11):1190-1191. View abstract.

Rice, K. C. and Wilson, R. S. (-)-3-Isothujone, a small non-nitrogenous molecule with antinociceptive activity in mice. J Med Chem 1976;19:1054-1057.

Romanova, A. S., Pervykh, L. N., and Pribylova, G. F. Method of quantitative determination of rouleanones in the roots of Salvia officinalis L. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal 1979;13:213-214.

Rota, C., Carraminana, J. J., Burillo, J., and Herrera, A. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants against selected foodborne pathogens. J Food Prot. 2004;67(6):1252-1256. View abstract.

Rutherford, D. M., Nielsen, M. P., Hansen, S. K., Witt, M. R., Bergendorff, O., and Sterner, O. Isolation and identification from Salvia officinalis of two diterpenes which inhibit t-butylbicyclophosphoro[35S]thionate binding to chloride channel of rat cerebrocortical membranes in vitro. Neurosci.Lett. 2-3-1992;135(2):224-226. View abstract.

Rzemykowska, Z. and Holderna-Kedzia, E. Phytochemical and microbiological studies of Salviae officinalis folium and Salviae miltiorrhizae radix extracts. Herba Polonica 2003;49:391-392.

Rzepa, J., Wojtal, L., Staszek, D., Grygierczyk, G., Labe, K., Hajnos, M., Kowalska, T., and Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. Fingerprint of selected Salvia species by HS-GC-MS analysis of their volatile fraction. J Chromatogr.Sci. 2009;47(7):575-580. View abstract.

Sa, C. M., Ramos, A. A., Azevedo, M. F., Lima, C. F., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Sage tea drinking improves lipid profile and antioxidant defences in humans. Int J Mol.Sci. 2009;10(9):3937-3950. View abstract.

Salisova, M., Toma, S., and Mason, T. J. Comparison of conventional and ultrasonically assisted extractions of pharmaceutically active compounds from Salvia officinalis. Ultrason.Sonochem. 1997;4(2):131-134. View abstract.

Santos-Gomes, P. C. and Fernandes-Ferreira, M. Essential oils produced by in vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). J Agric.Food Chem 4-9-2003;51(8):2260-2266. View abstract.

Santos-Gomes, P. C. and Fernandes-Ferreira, M. Organ- and season-dependent variation in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated at two different sites. J Agric.Food Chem. 2001;49(6):2908-2916. View abstract.

Santos-Gomes, P. C., Seabra, R. M., Andrade, P. B., and Fernandes-Ferreira, M. Determination of phenolic antioxidant compounds produced by calli and cell suspensions of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). J Plant Physiol 2003;160(9):1025-1032. View abstract.

Savelev, S. U., Okello, E. J., and Perry, E. K. Butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities in essential oils of Salvia species and their constituents. Phytother Res 2004;18(4):315-324. View abstract.

Savelev, S., Okello, E., Perry, N. S. L., Wilkins, R. M., and Perry, E. K. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of anticholinesterase terpenoids in Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003;75(3):661-668.

Schafer, R. and Schafer, W. Percutaneous absorption of various terpenes - menthol, camphene, limonene, isoborneol-acetate and alpha-pinene from foam baths. Arzneim Forsch 1982;32(1):56-58.

Schimmer, O., Kruger, A., Paulini, H., and Haefele, F. An evaluation of 55 commercial plant extracts in the Ames mutagenicity text. Pharmazie 1994;49:448-451.

Schmidt, Z., Pekic, B., and Karuza-Stojakovic, L. Examination of essential oil extracted from sage leaves (Salviae Folium). Farm Vestn 1990;41(223):231.

Schnitzler, P., Nolkemper, S., Stintzing, F. C., and Reichling, J. Comparative in vitro study on the anti-herpetic effect of phytochemically characterized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis grown at two different locations. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(1-2):62-70. View abstract.

Scholey, A. B., Tildesley, N. T., Ballard, C. G., Wesnes, K. A., Tasker, A., Perry, E. K., and Kennedy, D. O. An extract of Salvia (sage) with anticholinesterase properties improves memory and attention in healthy older volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2008;198(1):127-139. View abstract.

Sellerberg, U. Sage: classic under medicinal plants. PZ 2005;150

Sertoli, A., Fabbri, P., Campolmi, P., and Panconesi, E. Allergic contact dermatitis to Salvia Officinalis, Inula Viscosa and Conyza Bonariensis. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4(5):314-315.

Slamenova, D., Masterova, I., Labaj, J., Horvathova, E., Kubala, P., Jakubikova, J., and Wsolova, L. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of diterpenoid quinones from the roots of Salvia officinalis L. on colonic and hepatic human cells cultured in vitro. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2004;94(6):282-290. View abstract.

Smit, Z., Pekic, B., and Karuza-Stojakovic, L. Proposal methods for determination of essential oil content in alcoholic extracts. Farmaceutski Glasnik 1989;45:287-292.

Spiridonov, N. A., Arkhipov, V. V., Foigel, A. G., Shipulina, L. D., and Fomkina, M. G. Protonophoric and uncoupling activity of royleanones from Salvia officinalis and euvimals from Eucalyptus viminalis. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(10):1228-1230. View abstract.

Sterer, N. and Rubinstein, Y. Effect of various natural medicinals on salivary protein putrefaction and malodor production. Quintessence.Int 2006;37(8):653-658. View abstract.

Sterer, N., Nuas, S., Mizrahi, B., Goldenberg, C., Weiss, E. I., Domb, A., and Davidi, M. P. Oral malodor reduction by a palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation. J Dent. 2008;36(7):535-539. View abstract.

Suhr, K. I. and Nielsen, P. V. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94(4):665-674. View abstract.

Sur, S. V., Tljupa, F. M., and Sur, L. I. Gas chromatographic determination of main active substances in infusions of essential oil plant raw material. Farm Zh 1989;44:58-63.

Sysoev, N. P. and Lanina, S. I. [The results of sanitary chemical research into denture base materials coated with components from essential-oil plants]. Stomatologiia (Mosk) 1990;(4):59-61. View abstract.

Tamas, M., Fagarasanu, E., and Ionescu, C. Contributions to the phytochemical study of Salvia folium. Famacia 1986;34:181-186.

Tegtmeier, M. and Harnischfeger, G. Methods for the reduction of thujone content in pharmaceutical preparations of Artemisia, Salvia and Thuja. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1994;40:337-340.

Tekel'ova, D. and Felklova, M. Salvia officinalis L. cv. Krojova. Part 5. Contents of essential oil, ash and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in separated leaf insertions. Die Pharmazie 1993;48:938-940.

Tildesley, N. T., Kennedy, D. O., Perry, E. K., Ballard, C. G., Wesnes, K. A., and Scholey, A. B. Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers. Physiol Behav. 1-17-2005;83(5):699-709. View abstract.

Trninic, S., Vukovic-Gacic, B., Knezevic-Vukcevic, J., Mitic, D., and Simic, D. Antimutagenic effect of antioxidants from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Arhiv za Farmaciju 1995;45:264-265.

Tyler, V. E. The honest herbal a sensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press;1993.

Valachovic, P., Pechova, A., and Mason, T. J. Towards the industrial production of medicinal tincture by ultrasound assisted extraction. Ultrason.Sonochem. 2001;8(2):111-117. View abstract.

van den Dries, J. M. A. and Baerheim Svendsen, A. A simple method for detection of glycosidic bound monoterpenes and other volatile compounds occurring in fresh plant material. Flavour Fragrance J 1989;4:59-61.

Vaverkova, S. and Holla, M. Qualitative properties of three species of the genus Salvia. Part 1. Content and composition of the essential oil. Cesk Slov Farm 1992;41(102):104.

Vaverkova, S., Holla, M., and Tekel, J. The effect of herbicides on the qualitative properties of healing plants. Part 2: Content and composition of the essential oil from Salvia officinal is L. after application of Afalon 50 WP. Pharmazie 1995;50(2):143-144. View abstract.

Vaverkova, S., Holla, M., Tekel, J., and Kucerova, M. Content and quality of the ethereal oil from Salvia officinalis L. after the application of Patoran 50 WP. Cesk Slov Farm 1994;43:214-216.

Vernin, G. and Metzger, J. Analysis of sage oils by GC-MS data bank Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia lavendulaefolia Vahl. Perfumer & Flavorist 1986;11:79-84.

Vokou, D., Ivanic, R., and Savin, K. Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Southeast Serbia. Acta Pharm Jugosl 1977;27:139-142.

von Skramlik, E. Uber die Giftigkeit und Vertraglichkeit von atherischen Olen. Pharmazie 1959;14:435-445.

Vujosevic, M. and Blagojevic, J. Antimutagenic effects of extracts from sage (Salvia officinalis) in mammalian system in vivo. Acta Vet.Hung. 2004;52(4):439-443. View abstract.

Vukovic-Gacic, B., Nikcevic, S., Beric-Bjedov, T., Knezevic-Vukcevic, J., and Simic, D. Antimutagenic effect of essential oil of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and its monoterpenes against UV-induced mutations in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2006;44(10):1730-1738. View abstract.

Vukovic-Gacic, B., Simic, D., Knezevic-Vukcevic, J., and Djarmati, Z. Antimutagenic effect of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Arhiv za Farmaciju 1993;43:257-263.

Wake, G., Court, J., Pickering, A., Lewis, R., Wilkins, R., and Perry, E. CNS acetylcholine receptor activity in European medicinal plants traditionally used to improve failing memory. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;69(2):105-114. View abstract.

Wang, M., Kikuzaki, H., Zhu, N., Sang, S., Nakatani, N., and Ho, C-T. Isolation and structure elucidation of two new glycosides from sage. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:235-238.

Wang, M., Kikuzaki, H., Zhu, N., Sang, S., Nakatani, N., and Ho, C. T. Isolation and structural elucidation of two new glycosides from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48(2):235-238. View abstract.

Wang, M., Shao, Y., Li, J., Zhu, N., Rangarajan, M., LaVoie, E. J., and Ho, C-T. Antioxidative phenolic glycosides from sage. J Nat Prod 1999;62:454-456.

Wang, M., Shao, Y., Li, J., Zhu, N., Rangarajan, M., LaVoie, E. J., and Ho, C. T. Antioxidative phenolic glycosides from sage (Salvia officinalis). J Nat.Prod. 1999;62(3):454-456. View abstract.

Whittington, D. A., Wise, M. L., Urbansky, M., Coates, R. M., Croteau, R. B., and Christianson, D. W. Bornyl diphosphate synthase: structure and strategy for carbocation manipulation by a terpenoid cyclase. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 11-26-2002;99(24):15375-15380. View abstract.

Wise, M. L., Savage, T. J., Katahira, E., and Croteau, R. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of (+)-sabinene synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase. J Biol.Chem. 6-12-1998;273(24):14891-14899. View abstract.

Wu, T. Y., Chen, C. P., and Jinn, T. R. Traditional Chinese medicines and Alzheimer's disease. Taiwan.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 2011;50(2):131-135. View abstract.

Xavier, C. P., Lima, C. F., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Salvia fruticosa, Salvia officinalis, and rosmarinic acid induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of human colorectal cell lines: the role in MAPK/ERK pathway. Nutr Cancer 2009;61(4):564-571. View abstract.

Yarnell, E., Abascal, K., and Hooper, C. G. Clinical Botanical Medicine. Larchmont, NY: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.;2003.

Yu, Y. M., Lin, H. C., and Chang, W. C. Carnosic acid prevents the migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Br.J Nutr 2008;100(4):731-738. View abstract.

Zalecki, R., Kordana, S., Wolski, T., and Glinski, J. Influence of the keratin bark urea granulated mass on the herb crop and on the content of the essential oil in medicinal plants. Herba Polonica 1991;37:143-149.

Zani, F., Massimo, G., Benvenuti, S., Bianchi, A., Albasini, A., Melegari, M., Vampa, G., Bellotti, A., and Mazza, P. Studies on the genotoxic properties of essential oils with Bacillus subtilis rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay. Planta Med 1991;57(3):237-241. View abstract.

Zimna, D., Grzybowski, J., and Piekos, R. Extraction of some essential elements from the leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Scientia Pharmaceutica 1984;52:131-141.

Zupko, I., Hohmann, J., Redei, D., Falkay, G., Janicsak, G., and Mathe, I. Antioxidant activity of leaves of Salvia species in enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent systems of lipid peroxidation and their phenolic constituents. Planta Med 2001;67(4):366-368. View abstract.

Zuskin, E. and Skuric, Z. Respiratory function in tea workers. Br J Ind Med 1984;41(1):88-93. View abstract.

Zuskin, E., Kanceljak, B., Skuric, Z., and Ivankovic, D. Immunological and respiratory changes in tea workers. Int Arch Occup.Environ.Health 1985;56(1):57-65. View abstract.

Zuskin, E., Kanceljak, B., Witek, T. J., Jr., and Schachter, E. N. Acute effects of herbal tea dust extracts on lung function. Chest 1989;96(6):1327-1331. View abstract.

Adams ME. Hype about glucosamine. Lancet 1999;354:353-4. View abstract.

Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, et al. Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther 2003;28:53-9. View abstract.

Alarcon-Aguilar FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Flores-Saenz JL, Aguirre-Garcia F. Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. Phytother Res. 2002;16(4):383-6. View abstract.

Bommer S, Klein P, Suter A. First time proof of sage's tolerability and efficacy in menopausal women with hot flushes. Adv Ther 2011;28:490-500. View abstract.

Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Anderson RA. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:849-52.. View abstract.

Burkhard PR, Burkhardt K, Haenggeli CA, Landis T. Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem. J Neurol 1999;246:667-70. View abstract.

Buto SK, Tsang TK, Sielaff GW, et al. Bay leaf impaction in the esophagus and hypopharynx. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:82-3.

Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polissiou MG. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:2576-81. View abstract.

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at:

Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Hana J, et al. In vitro inhibition of human cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of marker substrates by natural products. Phytomedicine 2003;10:334-42.. View abstract.

Hellum BH, Nilsen OG. The in vitro inhibitory potential of trade herbal products on human CYP2D6-mediated metabolism and the influence of ethanol. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Nov;101:350-8. View abstract.

Leatherdale B, Panesar RK, Singh G, et al. Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:1823-4. View abstract.

Millet Y, Jouglard J, Steinmetz MD, et al. Toxicity of some essential plant oils. Clinical and experimental study. Clin Toxicol 1981;18:1485-98. View abstract.

Perry NB, Anderson RE, Brennan NJ, et al. Essential oils from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis l.): variations among individuals, plant parts, seasons, and sites. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:2048-54.. View abstract.

Perry NS, Bollen C, Perry EK, Ballard C. Salvia for dementia therapy: review of pharmacological activity and pilot tolerability clinical trial. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003;75:651-9.. View abstract.

Pierre F, et al. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides reduced the occurrence of colon tumors and develop gut-associated lymphoid tissue in Min mice. Cancer Res 1997;57:225-8. View abstract.

Saller R, Buechi S, Meyrat R, Schmidhauser C. Combined herbal preparation for topical treatment of Herpes labialis. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2001;8:373-82. View abstract.

Schapowal A, Berger D, Klein P, et al. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial. Eur.J Med Res 9-1-2009;14:406-12. View abstract.

Tildesley NT, Kennedy DO, Perry EK, et al. Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish Sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003;75:669-74.. View abstract.

Todorov S, Philianos S, Petkov V, et al. Experimental pharmacological study of three species from genus Salvia. Acta Physiol Pharmacol (Bulg) 1984;10:13-20. View abstract.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors