Acanthopanax Obovatus, Acanthopanax Obovatus Hoo, Acanthopanax senticosus, Buisson du Diable, Ci Wu Jia, Ciwujia, Ciwujia Root, Ciwujia Root Extract, Devil's Bush, Devil's Shrub, Éleuthéro, Eleuthero Extract, Eleuthero Ginseng, Eleuthero Root, Eleutherococci Radix, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Éleuthérocoque, Ginseng de Sibérie, Ginseng des Russes, Ginseng Root, Ginseng Siberiano, Ginseng Sibérien, Hedera senticosa, North Wu Jia Pi, Phytoestrogen, Plante Secrète des Russes, Poivre Sauvage, Prickly Eleutherococcus, Racine d'Eleuthérocoque, Racine de Ginseng, Racine Russe, Russian Root, Shigoka, Siberian Eleuthero, Siberian Ginseng, Thorny Bearer of Free Berries, Touch-Me-Not, Untouchable, Ussuri, Ussurian Thorny Pepperbrush, Wild Pepper, Wu Jia Pi, Wu-jia.
Siberian ginseng is a plant. People use the root of the plant to make medicine.
Siberian ginseng is often called an "adaptogen." This is a non-medical term used to describe substances that can supposedly strengthen the body and increase general resistance to daily stress.
In addition to being used as an adaptogen, Siberian ginseng is used for conditions of the heart and blood vessels such as high blood pressure, low blood pressure, hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), and rheumatic heart disease.
It is also used for kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes, high cholesterol, improving loss of sensation in extremities (peripheral neuropathy), fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, reducing the effects of a hangover, flu, colds, chronic bronchitis, and tuberculosis. It is also used for treating the side effects of cancer chemotherapy.
Some people use Siberian ginseng to improve athletic performance and the ability to do work. They also use it to treat sleep problems (insomnia) and the symptoms of infections caused by herpes simplex type 2.
It is also used to boost the immune system, prevent colds, and increase appetite.
In manufacturing, Siberian ginseng is added to skin care products.
Don't confuse Siberian ginseng with other types of ginseng. Siberian ginseng is not the same herb as American or Panax ginseng. Be careful about which product you choose. American and Panax ginseng can be a lot more expensive. It is said that years ago, the Soviet Union wanted to provide its athletes with the advantages offered by ginseng but wanted a less expensive version. So, Siberian ginseng became popular, and this is why most studies on Siberian ginseng have been done in Russia.
You should know that the quality of Siberian ginseng products varies a lot. Siberian ginseng is often misidentified or contains "adulterants," which are other ingredients that do not contribute to the benefit of the product, but take up space in the product. Silk vine is a common adulterant of Siberian ginseng.
Before taking Siberian ginseng, talk with your healthcare provider if you take any medications. This herb interacts with many prescription drugs.
How does it work?
Siberian ginseng contains many chemicals that affect the brain, immune system, and certain hormones. It might also contain chemicals that have activity against some bacteria and viruses.
Possibly Effective for...
- Bipolar disorder. Taking Siberian ginseng plus lithium by mouth for 6 weeks appears to induce a similar response rate and remission rate as taking lithium plus fluoxetine in people with bipolar disorder.
- Relieving symptoms of the common cold, when used in combination with an herb called andrographis. Some clinical research shows that taking a specific combination product containing Siberian ginseng plus andrographis (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) by mouth improves symptoms of the common cold when started within 72 hours of symptom onset. Some symptoms can improve after 2 days of treatment. However, it generally takes 4-5 days of treatment for the maximum benefit. Some research suggests this combination of Siberian ginseng and andrographis relieves cold symptoms in children better than echinacea. Also taking a specific product containing Siberian ginseng, echinacea, and malabar nut (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) for 6 days appears to improve coughing and congestion better than taking the drug bromohexine.
- Diabetes. Taking Siberian ginseng extract appears to decrease blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
- A viral infection called herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). Taking a specific Siberian ginseng extract, standardized to contain a specific ginseng ingredient called eleutheroside 0.3% (Elagen), seems to reduce the number, severity, and duration of herpes simplex type 2 infections.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Improving athletic performance. Research on the effects of Siberian ginseng for improving athletic performance is conflicting. Some research shows that taking a specific Siberian ginseng product (Endurox) does not seem to improve breathing or heart rate recovery following treadmill, cycling, or stair-stepping exercises. Also, taking a Siberian ginseng liquid extract that contains chemicals called eleutheroside B and eleutheroside E does not appear to improve endurance or performance in trained distance runners. However, other research shows that taking powdered Siberian ginseng containing these two chemicals might improve breathing and endurance while cycling.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome. Taking Siberian ginseng by mouth does not seem to reduce symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome.
- Mental performance. Early research suggests that Siberian ginseng might improve memory and feelings of well-being in middle-aged people. Also, taking a combination of rhodiola, schisandra, and Siberian ginseng (ADAPT-232) seems to improve attention and mental speed and accuracy in women experiencing mental stress.
- An inherited disorder that causes swelling and fevers (Familial Mediterranean fever). Early research suggests that taking a combination of Siberian ginseng, andrographis, schisandra, and licorice (ImmunoGuard, Inspired Nutritionals) reduces the duration, number, and severity of attaches of familial Mediterranean fever in children.
- Hangover. Early research suggests that taking Siberian ginseng extract might relieve some symptoms associated with a hangover.
- Heart disease. Early research suggests that injecting Siberian ginseng intravenously (by IV) might help reduce some risk factors for heart disease, including high cholesterol and an abnormal heart rate.
- High Cholesterol. Taking Siberian ginseng extract appears to decrease triglyceride and total cholesterol levels.
- Flu. Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing Siberian ginseng plus andrographis (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) helps relieve symptoms faster and reduce the risk of flu complications better than taking the drug amantadine.
- Stress. Early research suggests taking Siberian ginseng root has no effect on stress levels when taken alone or with stress management training.
- Stroke. Early research suggests that injecting Siberian ginseng intravenously (by IV) might help treat strokes caused by a blockage of blood vessels that supply blood to the brain.
- Osteoarthritis. Taking a combination of Panax ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and rehmannia for 6 weeks seems to improve physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis. However, the combination does not seem to reduce pain or stiffness.
- Osteoporosis. Early research suggests that adding rehmannia and Siberian ginseng to calcium plus vitamin D treatment for one year helps reduce the loss of bone density in the spine and thigh bone in postmenopausal women.
- Pneumonia. Early research suggests that taking a combination of rhodiola, schisandra, and Siberian ginseng (Chisan) along with standard treatment for 10-15 days helps reduce the length of time that antibiotics are needed and may improve quality of life in people with pneumonia better than standard treatment alone.
- Quality of life. Some research shows that Siberian ginseng significantly improves sociability and sense of well-being in people over 65 years of age after 4 weeks of treatment. But the effects seem to disappear after 8 weeks.
- Alzheimer's disease.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- Chemotherapy side effects.
- Kidney problems.
- Low oxygen levels.
- Motion sickness.
- High cholesterol.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Siberian ginseng is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth, short-term. While side effects are rare, some people can have drowsiness, changes in heart rhythm, sadness, anxiety, muscle spasms, and other side effects. In high doses, increased blood pressure might occur.
Siberian ginseng is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth, long-term, or when injected intravenously (by IV), short term. Siberian ginseng has been taken by mouth in combination with rehmannia, calcium, and vitamin D for up to one year. Siberian ginseng has been injected by IV for up to 2 weeks.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking Siberian ginseng if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Bleeding disorders: Siberian ginseng contains chemicals that might slow blood clotting. In theory, Siberian ginseng might increase the risk of bleeding and bruising in people with bleeding disorders.
Heart conditions: Siberian ginseng can cause a pounding heart, irregular heartbeat, and high blood pressure. People who have heart disorders (e.g., "hardening of the arteries," rheumatic heart disease, or history of heart attack) should use Siberian ginseng only under a healthcare provider's supervision.
Diabetes: Siberian ginseng might increase or decrease blood sugar. In theory, Siberian ginseng might affect blood sugar control in people with diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar carefully if you take Siberian ginseng and have diabetes.
Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Siberian ginseng might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don't use Siberian ginseng.
High blood pressure: Siberian ginseng should not be used by people with blood pressure over 180/90. Siberian ginseng might make high blood pressure worse.
Mental conditions such as mania or schizophrenia: Siberian ginseng might make these conditions worse. Use with caution.
Alcohol (Ethanol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Alcohol can cause sedative effects such as sleepiness and drowsiness. Siberian ginseng might also cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Taking large amounts of Siberian ginseng along with alcohol might cause you to become too sedated.
Digoxin (Lanoxin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Digoxin (Lanoxin) helps the heart beat more strongly. One person had too much digoxin in their system while taking a natural product that might have had Siberian ginseng in it. But it is unclear if Siberian ginseng or other herbs in the supplement were the cause.
LithiumInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Siberian ginseng might have an effect like a "water pill" or diuretic. Taking Siberian ginseng might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Siberian ginseng might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. Taking Siberian ginseng along with medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Siberian ginseng, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline (Slo-bid, Theo-Dur, others), zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Siberian ginseng might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. Taking Siberian ginseng along with medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Siberian ginseng, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), warfarin (Coumadin), estradiol (Estrace), tacrine (Cognex), verapamil (Calan), and others.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Siberian ginseng might affect blood sugar by lowering blood sugar levels. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking Siberian ginseng along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low or cause your diabetes medication to be less effective. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications moved by pumps in cells (Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide Substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are moved by pumps in cells. Siberian ginseng might change how these pumps work and decrease how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This could make these medications less effective. Some of these medications that are moved by pumps in cells include bosentan (Tracleer), celiprolol (Celicard, others), etoposide (VePesid), fexofenadine (Allegra), fluoroquinolone antibiotics, glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta), irinotecan (Camptosar), methotrexate, nadolol (Corgard), paclitaxel (Taxol), saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase), rifampin, statins, talinolol, torsemide (Demadex), troglitazone, and valsartan (Diovan).
Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-glycoprotein Substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are moved by pumps into cells. Siberian ginseng might make these pumps less active and increase how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This might increase the side effects of some medications.
Some medications that are moved by these pumps include etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (Propulsid), fexofenadine (Allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (Imodium), quinidine, and others.
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Siberian ginseng might increase the activity of the immune system. Taking Siberian ginseng along with medications that decrease the immune system might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.
Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Siberian ginseng might slow blood clotting. Taking Siberian ginseng along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Sedative medications (CNS depressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Siberian ginseng might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking Siberian ginseng along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrates)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Siberian ginseng might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. Taking Siberian ginseng along with medications that are changed by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking Siberian ginseng, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver. However, this interaction is not verified with certainty in humans yet.
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), clozapine (Clozaril), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), donepezil (Aricept), fentanyl (Duragesic), flecainide (Tambocor), fluoxetine (Prozac), meperidine (Demerol), methadone (Dolophine), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), trazodone (Desyrel), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Siberian ginseng might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. Taking Siberian ginseng along with medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Siberian ginseng, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For herpes simplex type 2 infections: Siberian ginseng extract standardized to contain eleutheroside E 0.3% in doses of 400 mg per day.
- For the common cold: 400 mg of a combination of Siberian ginseng plus a specific andrographis extract, standardized to contain 4-5.6 mg andrographolide (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) three times daily.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Afanas'eva, T. N. and Lebkova, N. P. [Effect of Eleutherococcus on the subcellular structures of the heart in experimental myocardial infarct]. Biull.Eksp.Biol.Med 1987;103(2):212-215. View abstract.
Andreev, I. F. [Effect of Eleutherococcus extract on some functions of the digestive organs]. Vrach.Delo 1976;(8):40-41. View abstract.
Antoshechkin, A, Olalde, J, Antoshechkina, M, Briuzgin, V, and Platinskiy, L. Influence of the plant extract complex "AdMax" on global gene expression levels in cultured human fibroblasts. Journal of Dietary Supplements 2008;5(3):293-304.
Antoshechkin, A, Olalde, J, Antoshechkina, M, Bruizgin, V, and Platinskiy, L. Stimulating effect of the plant extract complex "AdMax" on expression level of the gene involved in energy metabolism in cultured human fibroblasts. Chemistry and medicinal value 2009;15-19.
Apers, S., Naessens, T., Van Miert, S., Pieters, L., and Vlietinck, A. Quality control of roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus by HPLC. Phytochem.Anal. 2005;16(1):55-60. View abstract.
Baczek, K, Przyby, J. L, and Weglarz, Z. Intraspecific chemical variability of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et. Maxim.) Maxim. Acta Horticulturae 2010;860:119-122.
Baczek, K. Accumulation of biologically active compounds in Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus/Rupr. et Maxim./Maxim.) grown in Poland. Herba Polonica 2009;55:7-13.
Baczek, K. Accumulation of biologically active compounds in Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus/Rupr. et Maxim./Maxim.) grown in Poland. Herba Polonica Poznan´: Instytut Ro?lin i Przetworów Zielarskich 2009;55(1):7-13.
Bai, Y., Tohda, C., Zhu, S., Hattori, M., and Komatsu, K. Active components from Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) for protection of amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy in cultured rat cortical neurons. J Nat.Med 2011;65(3-4):417-423. View abstract.
Baranov, A. I. Medicinal uses of ginseng and related plants in the Soviet Union: recent trends in the Soviet literature. J Ethnopharmacol 1982;6(3):339-353. View abstract.
Bazaz'ian, G. G., Liapina, L. A., Pastorova, V. E., and Zvereva, E. G. [Effect of Eleutherococcus on the functional status of the anticoagulation system in older animals]. Fiziol.Zh.SSSR Im I.M.Sechenova 1987;73(10):1390-1395. View abstract.
Ben Hur, E. and Fulder, S. Effect of Panax ginseng saponins and Eleutherococcus senticosus on survival of cultured mammalian cells after ionizing radiation. Am.J Chin Med 1981;9(1):48-56. View abstract.
Blascakova, M and Poracova, J. Secondary metabolites of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus MAXIM.) and their effect on biochemical parameters of poultry. Advances in Environmental Biology Ma'an: American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information 2011;5(2):320-324.
Bohn, B., Nebe, C. T., and Birr, C. Flow-cytometric studies with eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an immunomodulatory agent. Arzneimittelforschung. 1987;37(10):1193-1196. View abstract.
Bu, Y., Jin, Z. H., Park, S. Y., Baek, S., Rho, S., Ha, N., Park, S. K., and Kim, H. Siberian ginseng reduces infarct volume in transient focal cerebral ischaemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Phytother Res 2005;19(2):167-169. View abstract.
Bu, Y., Kwon, S., Kim, Y. T., Kim, M. Y., Choi, H., Kim, J. G., Jamarkattel-Pandit, N., Dore, S., Kim, S. H., and Kim, H. Neuroprotective effect of HT008-1, a prescription of traditional Korean medicine, on transient focal cerebral ischemia model in rats. Phytother.Res 2010;24(8):1207-1212. View abstract.
Buzlama, V. S., Antipov, V. A., Demchenko, IuV, Dolgopolou, V. N., and Retskiy, M. I. [Use of Eleutherococcus for preventing transportation stress in swine]. Veterinariia. 1976;(4):UNKNOWN. View abstract.
Castleman, M. 6 TOP HERBAL TONICS. Mother Earth News 2008;228:121-127.
Chang, S. H., Sung, H. C., Choi, Y., Ko, S. Y., Lee, B. E., Baek, D. H., Kim, S. W., and Kim, J. K. Suppressive effect of AIF, a water extract from three herbs, on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(9):1365-1372. View abstract.
Chen RuiZhan, Liu ZhiQiang, Zhao JiMin, Chen RuiPing, Meng FanLei, Zhang Min, and Ge WenCheng. Antioxidant and immunobiological activity of water-soluble polysaccharide fractions purified from Acanthopanax senticosu. Food Chemistry 2011;127(2):434-440.
Chen, C. Y. O, Ribaya-Mercado, J. D, McKay, D. L, Croom, E, and Blumberg, J. B. Differential antioxidant and quinone reductase inducing activity of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng. Food Chemistry 2010;119(2):445-451.
Chen, T. S., Liou, S. Y., and Chang, Y. L. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogen extracts. Am J Chin Med 2008;36(6):1209-1217. View abstract.
Cheuvront, S. N., Moffatt, R. J., Biggerstaff, K. D., Bearden, S., and McDonough, P. Effect of ENDUROX on metabolic responses to submaximal exercise. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9(4):434-442. View abstract.
Chrastinová, L, Chrenková, M, Pola?iková, M, Lauková, A, Simonová, M, Szabóová, R, Strompfová, V, Ondruška, L, Rafay, J, Vasilková, Z, Plachá, I, Faix, Haviarová M, and Mojto, J. Utilization of an extract product from ginseng supplementation in diets and different energy levels of granulated feed in the nutrition of rabbits. Archiva Zootechnica Balotesti: Institutal de Biologie si Nutritie Animala (Institute of Biology and Animal Nutrition) 2009;12(1):72-79.
Daley, J. Adaptogens. J Complement Med 2009;8(1):36-38.
Deyama, T., Nishibe, S., and Nakazawa, Y. Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001;22(12):1057-1070. View abstract.
Di Carlo, G., Pacilio, M., Capasso, R., and Di Carlo, R. Effect on prolactin secretion of Echinacea purpurea, hypericum perforatum and Eleutherococcus senticosus. Phytomedicine 2005;12(9):644-647. View abstract.
Elizarov, E. N. and Khudoshin, V. A. [Effect of physical exercises and Eleutherococcus on lipid metabolic indices in submariners]. Voen.Med Zh. 1977;(4):64-66. View abstract.
Engel, K. herbal tonics. Natural Health 2007;38(1):91-94.
Fang Jun, Yan, F. Y., Kong, X. F, Ruan, Z., Liu, Z. Q, Huang, R. L, Li, T. J, Geng, M. M, Yang, F, Zhang, Y. Z, Li Peng, Gong, J, Wu, G. Y, Fan, M. Z, Liu, Y. L, Hou, Y. Q, and Yin, Y. L. Dietary supplementation with Acanthopanax senticosus extract enhances gut health in weanling piglets. Livestock Science 2009;123(2/3):268-275.
Farnsworth NR, Kinghorn AD, Soejarto DD, and et al. Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): current status as an adaptogen. In: Wagner H, Hikino H, and Farnsworth NR. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Orlando, FL: Academic Press;1985.
Feng, S., Hu, F., Zhao, J. X., Liu, X., and Li, Y. Determination of eleutheroside E and eleutheroside B in rat plasma and tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography using solid-phase extraction and photodiode array detection. Eur J Pharm.Biopharm. 2006;62(3):315-320. View abstract.
Ferguson, P. W., Medon, P. J., and Watson, C. F. Effect of aqueous extracts of Acanthopanax senticosus on parathion toxicity in mice. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue.Bao. 1984;5(4):278-281. View abstract.
Filaretov, A. A., Bogdanova, T. S., Mitiushov, M. I., Podvigina, T. T., and Srailova, G. T. [Effect of adaptogens on the activity of the pituitary-adrenocortical system in rats]. Biull.Eksp.Biol.Med 1986;101(5):573-574. View abstract.
Friedman, J. A., Taylor, S. A., McDermott, W., and Alikhani, P. Multifocal and recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage due to an herbal supplement containing natural coumarins. Neurocrit.Care 2007;7(1):76-80. View abstract.
Fu Qian, Hu SuMin, and Zhou Peng. Effect of hindlimb unloaded 3 weeks and Chinese herbal prescriptions on systemic bone mineral density in simulated weightlessness rats. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine Beijing: Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine 2010;17(1):28-30.
Fujikawa, T., Yamaguchi, A., Morita, I., Takeda, H., and Nishibe, S. Protective effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms from Hokkaido and its components on gastric ulcer in restrained cold water stressed rats. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 1996;19(9):1227-1230. View abstract.
Gaffney, B. T., Hugel, H. M., and Rich, P. A. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Med Hypotheses 2001;56(5):567-572. View abstract.
Gaffney, B. T., Hugel, H. M., and Rich, P. A. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 12-14-2001;70(4):431-442. View abstract.
Gaffney, B. T., Hugell, H. M., and Rich, P. A. The chromatographic co-elution of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol monopyranose with eleutheroside E in Eleutherococcus senticosus: implications for eleutheroside E assays. Phytochem.Anal. 2004;15(4):231-234. View abstract.
Gladchun, V. P. [Effect of adaptogenes on the immunological reactivity of patients with a history of acute pneumonia]. Vrach.Delo 1983;(2):32-35. View abstract.
Golotin, V. G., Gonenko, V. A., Zimina, V. V., Naumov, V. V., and Shevtsova, S. P. [Effect of ionol and eleutherococcus on changes of the hypophyseo-adrenal system in rats under extreme conditions]. Vopr.Med Khim. 1989;35(1):35-37. View abstract.
Gordeichuk, T. N., Chebotar', N. A., Konopistseva, L. A., and Puchkov, V. F. [The prevention of congenital developmental anomalies in rats]. Ontogenez 1993;24(1):48-55. View abstract.
Goulet, E. D. and Dionne, I. J. Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2005;15(1):75-83. View abstract.
Gyllenhaal, C., Merritt, S. L., Peterson, S. D., Block, K. I., and Gochenour, T. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4(3):229-251. View abstract.
He QingHua, Kong XiangFeng, Hou YongQing, Yin YuLong, Yin FuGui, Liu HeJun, Li TieJun, Huang RuiLin, Yu Hai, and Gong JianHua. Effects of Chinese herbal ultra-fine powder as a dietary additive on gut microbiota in early-weaned piglets. Standardization of herbal/Ayurvedic formulations 2009;443-455.
Hong, J. H., Cha, Y. S., and Rhee, S. J. Effects of the Cellcultured Acanthopanax senticosus Extract on Antioxidative Defense System and Membrane Fluidity in the Liver of Type 2 Diabetes Mouse. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2009;45(1):101-109. View abstract.
Horng ChiTing, Liu IMin, Kuo DaihHuang, Tsai YaWen, and Shieh PoChuen. Comparison of xanthine oxidase-inhibiting and free radical-scavenging activities between plant adaptogens of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Rhodiola rosea. Drug Development Research 2010;71(4):249-252.
Huang, D. B., Ran, R. Z., and Yu, Z. F. [Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus injection on the activities of human tumor necrosis factor and natural killer cell in blood in the patients with lung cancer]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30(8):621-624. View abstract.
Huang, L. Z., Huang, B. K., Ye, Q., and Qin, L. P. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-7-2011;133(1):213-219. View abstract.
Huang, L. Z., Wei, L., Zhao, H. F., Huang, B. K., Rahman, K., and Qin, L. P. The effect of Eleutheroside E on behavioral alterations in murine sleep deprivation stress model. Eur J Pharmacol. 5-11-2011;658(2-3):150-155. View abstract.
Huang, L., Zhao, H., Huang, B., Zheng, C., Peng, W., and Qin, L. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology. Pharmazie 2011;66(2):83-97. View abstract.
Jeong, H. J., Koo, H. N., Myung, N. I., Shin, M. K., Kim, J. W., Kim, D. K., Kim, K. S., Kim, H. M., and Lee, Y. M. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 2001;23(1):107-117. View abstract.
Jiang, C., Ye, D., Qiu, W., Zhang, X., Zhang, Z., He, D., Zhang, P., and Chen, W. Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO. BMC.Cancer 2007;7:40. View abstract.
Jiang, J., Eliaz, I., and Sliva, D. Suppression of growth and invasive behavior of human prostate cancer cells by ProstaCaid: mechanism of activity. Int J Oncol. 2011;38(6):1675-1682. View abstract.
Jiao ZhengHua, Gu XiuYan, Yang XiaoYuan, and Jin LuSheng. Quantification of syringin and syringaresinol in Ciwujia Injection by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine Beijing: Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine 2007;14(8):50-51.
Jung, C. H., Jung, H., Shin, Y. C., Park, J. H., Jun, C. Y., Kim, H. M., Yim, H. S., Shin, M. G., Bae, H. S., Kim, S. H., and Ko, S. G. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-15-2007;113(1):183-187. View abstract.
Kaloeva, Z. D. [Effect of the glycosides of Eleutherococcus senticosus on the hemodynamic indices of children with hypotensive states]. Farmakol.Toksikol. 1986;49(5):73. View abstract.
Kang SunYoung, Lee MinHee, Ko YoungHyun, Sohn SeaHwan, Moon YangSoo, and Jang InSurk. Effect of dietary supplementation of Acanthopanax senticosus and Eucommia ulmoides on antioxidant defense system in laying hens. Korean Journal of Poultry Science 2010;37(1):15-21.
Kang, H. K, Beloor, J., Sohn, S. H, Jang, I. S, and Moon, Y. S. Effect of dietary supplementation of Acanthopanax senticosus and Eucommiaceae on the expression of lipogenic, myogenic and antioxidant enzyme genes in broiler chickens. Korean Journal of Poultry Science 2009;36(1):39-45.
Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh. Build your immunity. Better Nutrition 2009;71(8):20-21.
Khasina, E. I., Dardymov, I. V., and Brekhman, I. I. [Effect of Eleutherococcys extract on the readaptation processes after 7-hour hypokinesia in rats]. Kosm.Biol.Aviakosm.Med 1983;17(5):55-58. View abstract.
Khetagurova, L. G., Gonobobleva, T. N., and Pashaian, S. G. [Effects of Eleutherococcus on the biorhythm of indices of peripheral blood in dogs]. Biull.Eksp.Biol.Med 1991;111(4):402-404. View abstract.
Kim, K. J., Hong, H. D., Lee, O. H., and Lee, B. Y. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on global hepatic gene expression in rats subjected to heat environmental stress. Toxicology 12-5-2010;278(2):217-223. View abstract.
Kim, K. S., Yao, L., Lee, Y. C., Chung, E., Kim, K. M., Kwak, Y. J., Kim, S. J., Cui, Z., and Lee, J. H. Hyul-Tong-Ryung suppresses PMA-induced MMP-9 expression by inhibiting AP-1-mediated gene expression via ERK 1/2 signaling pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 2010;32(4):600-606. View abstract.
Kim, M. Y., Park, Y., Pandit, N. R., Kim, J., Song, M., Park, J., Choi, H. Y., and Kim, H. The herbal formula HT042 induces longitudinal bone growth in adolescent female rats. J Med Food 2010;13(6):1376-1384. View abstract.
Kimura, Y. and Sumiyoshi, M. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95(2-3):447-453. View abstract.
Kong XiangFeng, Yin YuLong, Wu GuoYao, Liu HeJun, Yin FuGui, Li TieJun, Huang RuiLin, Ruan Zheng, Xiong Hua, Deng ZeYuan, Xie MingYong, Liao YiPing, and Kim SungWoo. Dietary supplementation with Acanthopanax senticosus extract modulates cellular and humoral immunity in weaned piglets. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences Kyunggi-do: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies 2011;20(9):1453-1461.
Kong, X. F, Wu, G. Y, Liao, Y. P, Hou, Z. P, Liu, H. J, Yin, F. G, Li, T. J, Huang, R. L, Zhang, Y. M, Deng, D, Kang, P, Wang, R. X, Tang, Z. Y, Yang, C. B, Deng, Z. Y, Xiong, H, Chu, W. Y, Ruan, Z, Xie, M. Y, and Yin, Y. L. Effects of Chinese herbal ultra-fine powder as a dietary additive on growth performance, serum metabolites and intestinal health in early-weaned piglets. Livestock Science 2007;108(1/3):272-275.
Kong, X. F, Yin, F. G, He, Q. H, Liu, H. J, Li, T. J, Huang, R. L, Fan, M. Z, Liu, Y. L, Hou, Y. Q, Li Peng, Ruan, Z, Deng, Z. Y, Xie, M. Y, Xiong, H, and Yin, Y. L. Acanthopanax senticosus extract as a dietary additive enhances the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in weaned piglets. Livestock Science 2009;123(2/3):261-267.
Kropotov, A. V., Kolodnyak, O. L., and Koldaev, V. M. Effects of Siberian ginseng extract and ipriflavone on the development of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Bull.Exp.Biol.Med 2002;133(3):252-254. View abstract.
Kurkin, V. A, Dubishchev, A. V, Ezhkov, V. N, and Titova, I. N. Anxiolytic activities of some phytopharmaceuticals and phenylpropanoids. Rastitel'nye Resursy St.Petersburg: Izdatel'stvo Nauka 2007;43(3):130-139.
Kwan, C. Y., Zhang, W. B., Sim, S. M., Deyama, T., and Nishibe, S. Vascular effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): endothelium-dependent NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxation depending on vessel size. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2004;369(5):473-480. View abstract.
Lauková, A, Plachá, I, Chrastinová, L, Simonová, M, Szabóová, R, Strompfová, V, Jur?ík, R, and Porá?ová, J. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract on the phagocytic activity in rabbits. Slovenský Veterinársky ?asopisKošice: Institute for Postgraduate Education of Veterinary Surgeons 2008;33(4):251-252.
Lee JeongMin, Kim HyeMin, and Lee SangHyun. Quantitative analysis of chiisanoside in Acanthopanax species by HPLC. Nat Prod Sci 2007;13(2):148-151.
Lee JeongMin, Kim HyeMin, Lee SulLim, Han Saem, Cho SeonHaeng, and Lee SangHyun. Determination of hyperin in the fruits of Acanthopanax species by high performance liquid chromatography. Nat Prod Sci 2010;16(1):39-42.
Lee, Y. J., Chung, H. Y., Kwak, H. K., and Yoon, S. The effects of A. senticosus supplementation on serum lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and lymphocyte DNA damage in postmenopausal women. Biochem Biophys.Res Commun 10-10-2008;375(1):44-48. View abstract.
Li Fang, Li Wei, Fu HongWei, Zhang QingBo, and Koike, K. Pancreatic lipase-inhibiting triterpenoid saponins from fruits of Acanthopanax senticosus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2007;55(7):1087-1089.
Li ZhiFeng, Yang JinHuo, Zhang WuGang, Feng YuLin, Jian Hui, Luo XiaoJian, Yang ShiLin, and Pei YueHu. Chemical constituents from Acanthopanax senticosus. Zhongcaoyao = Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs Tianjin: Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs 2011;42(5):852-855.
Li, F., Li, W., Fu, H., Zhang, Q., and Koike, K. Pancreatic lipase-inhibiting triterpenoid saponins from fruits of Acanthopanax senticosus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2007;55(7):1087-1089. View abstract.
Li, X. C., Barnes, D. L., and Khan, I. A. A new lignan glycoside from Eleutherococcus senticosus. Planta Med 2001;67(8):776-778. View abstract.
Li, X. Y. Immunomodulating Chinese herbal medicines. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz 1991;86 Suppl 2:159-164. View abstract.
Li, Z. F., Wu, Z. H., Chen, G., Zhang, Q. H., and Pei, Y. H. Two new compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms. J Asian Nat.Prod.Res 2009;11(8):716-719. View abstract.
Liang, Q., Qu, S., Yu, X., Xu, H., and Sui, D. [Acanthopanax senticosus saponins ameliorates oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34(19):2489-2493. View abstract.
Liang, Q., Yu, X., Qu, S., Xu, H., and Sui, D. Acanthopanax senticosides B ameliorates oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2-10-2010;627(1-3):209-215. View abstract.
Lim JungDae and Choung MyoungGun. Screening of biological activities of Acanthopanax senticosus fruits extracts. Korean J Crop Sci 2011;56(1):1-7.
Lin ChiaChin, Hsieh ShuJon, Hsu ShihLan, and Chang, C. M. J. Hot pressurized water extraction of syringin from Acanthopanax senticosus and in vitro activation on rat-blood macrophages. Biochem Eng J 2007;37(2):117-124.
Lin, Q. Y., Jin, L. J., Cao, Z. H., Li, H. Q., and Xu, Y. P. Protective effect of Acanthopanax senticosus extract against endotoxic shock in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-13-2008;118(3):495-502. View abstract.
Lin, Q. Y., Jin, L. J., Cao, Z. H., Lu, Y. N., Xue, H. Y., and Xu, Y. P. Acanthopanax senticosus suppresses reactive oxygen species production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Phytother.Res 2008;22(6):740-745. View abstract.
Lin, Q. Y., Jin, L. J., Ma, Y. S., Shi, M., and Xu, Y. P. Acanthopanax senticosus inhibits nitric oxide production in murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Phytother.Res 2007;21(9):879-883. View abstract.
Lishmanov, IuB, Maslov, L. N., Arbuzov, A. G., Krylatov, A. V., Platonov, A. A., Burkova, V. N., and Kaiumova, E. A. [Cardioprotective, inotropic, and anti-arrhythmia properties of a complex adaptogen "Tonizid"]. Eksp.Klin.Farmakol. 2008;71(3):15-22. View abstract.
Liu, K. Y., Wu, Y. C., Liu, I. M., Yu, W. C., and Cheng, J. T. Release of acetylcholine by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats. Neurosci Lett. 3-28-2008;434(2):195-199. View abstract.
Liu, Y, Jin, LJ, Li X-Y, and Xu Y-P. Application of Mechanochemical Pretreatment to Aqueous Extraction of Isofraxidin from Eleutherococcus Senticosus. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2007;46(20):6584-6589.
Lucio-Gutiérrez, J. R, Coello, J, and Maspoch, S. Application of near infrared spectral fingerprinting and pattern recognition techniques for fast identification of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Food Research International 2011;44(2):557-565.
Ma, Y. C., Wang, X. Q., Hou, F., Ma, J., Luo, M., Lu, S., Jin, P., Chen, A., Xu, I., Patel, A. V., and Gorecki, D. Simultaneous quantification of polyherbal formulations containing Rhodiola rosea L. and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. using rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC). J Pharm Biomed.Anal. 7-15-2011;55(5):908-915. View abstract.
Maruyama, T., Kamakura, H., Miyai, M., Komatsu, K., Kawasaki, T., Fujita, M., Shimada, H., Yamamoto, Y., Shibata, T., and Goda, Y. Authentication of the traditional medicinal plant Eleutherococcus senticosus by DNA and chemical analyses. Planta Med 2008;74(7):787-789. View abstract.
Maslova, L. V., Lishmanov, IuB, and Maslov, L. N. [Cardioprotective effects of adaptogens of plant origin]. Biull.Eksp.Biol.Med 1993;115(3):269-271. View abstract.
McNaughton, L. G. Egan and G. Caelli. A comparison of Chinese and Russian ginseng as ergogenic aids to improve various facets of physical fitness. Int.Clin.Nutr.Rev. 1989;9:32-35.
Medon, P. J., Thompson, E. B., and Farnsworth, N. R. Hypoglycemic effect and toxicity of Eleutherococcus senticosus following acute and chronic administration in mice. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue.Bao. 1981;2(4):281-285. View abstract.
Minkova, M. and Pantev, T. Effect of Eleutherococcus extract on the radioprotective action of adeturone. Acta Physiol Pharmacol.Bulg. 1987;13(4):66-70. View abstract.
Minkova, M., Pantev, T., Topalova, S., and Tenchova, V. Peripheral blood changes in Eleutherococcus pretreated mice exposed to acute gamma radiation. Radiobiol.Radiother.(Berl) 1982;23(6):675-678. View abstract.
Miyanomae, T. and Frindel, E. Radioprotection of hemopoiesis conferred by Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (Shigoka) administered before or after irradiation. Exp.Hematol. 1988;16(9):801-806. View abstract.
Molokovskii, D. S., Davydov, V. V., and Tiulenev, V. V. [The action of adaptogenic plant preparations in experimental alloxan diabetes]. Probl.Endokrinol.(Mosk) 1989;35(6):82-87. View abstract.
Monakhov, B. V. [Extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim and the therapeutic activity of cyclophosphane, ethymidine, and benzo-TEPA]. Vopr.Onkol. 1967;13(8):94-97. View abstract.
Monograph. Eleutherococcus senticosus. Altern Med Rev 2006;11(2):151-155. View abstract.
Monokhov, B. V. [Influence of the liquid extract from the roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus on the toxicity and antitumor activity of cyclophosphan]. Vopr.Onkol. 1965;11(12):60-63. View abstract.
Narimanian, M., Badalyan, M., Panosyan, V., Gabrielyan, E., Panossian, A., Wikman, G., and Wagner, H. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine 2005;12(10):723-729. View abstract.
Narimanian, M., Badalyan, M., Panosyan, V., Gabrielyan, E., Panossian, A., Wikman, G., and Wagner, H. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (KanJang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine 2005;12(8):539-547. View abstract.
Newton, K. M., Reed, S. D., Grothaus, L., Ehrlich, K., Guiltinan, J., Ludman, E., and Lacroix, A. Z. Reprint of The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design. Maturitas 2008;61(1-2):181-193. View abstract.
Newton, K. M., Reed, S. D., Grothaus, L., Ehrlich, K., Guiltinan, J., Ludman, E., and Lacroix, A. Z. The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design. Maturitas 10-16-2005;52(2):134-146. View abstract.
Newton, K. M., Reed, S. D., LaCroix, A. Z., Grothaus, L. C., Ehrlich, K., and Guiltinan, J. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 12-19-2006;145(12):869-879. View abstract.
Nishibe, S., Kinoshita, H., Takeda, H., and Okano, G. Phenolic compounds from stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus and their pharmacological effect in chronic swimming stressed rats. Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38(6):1763-1765. View abstract.
Niu, H. S., Hsu, F. L., Liu, I. M., and Cheng, J. T. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to produce antihyperglycemic action in type 1-like diabetic rats. Horm.Metab Res 2007;39(12):894-898. View abstract.
Niu, H. S., Liu, I. M., Cheng, J. T., Lin, C. L., and Hsu, F. L. Hypoglycemic effect of syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med 2008;74(2):109-113. View abstract.
Novozhilov, G. N. and Sil'chenko, K. K. [Mechanism of adaptogenic effect of Eleutherococcus on the human body during thermal stress]. Fiziol.Cheloveka 1985;11(2):303-306. View abstract.
Oates, L. Siberian ginseng: Eleutherococcus senticosus. J Complement Med 2008;7(4):44-47.
Oh SY, Aryal DK, Kim Y-G, and Kim H-G. Effects of R. glutinosa and E. senticosus on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2007;11(3):121-127.
Olalde, J. A., Magarici, M., Amendola, F., del, Castillo O., Gonzalez, S., and Muhammad, A. Clinical outcomes of diabetic foot management with Circulat. Phytother.Res 2008;22(10):1292-1298. View abstract.
Panossian, A. and Wagner, H. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration. Phytother Res 2005;19(10):819-838. View abstract.
Panossian, A. and Wikman, G. Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2009;4(3):198-219. View abstract.
Park, E. J., Nan, J. X., Zhao, Y. Z., Lee, S. H., Kim, Y. H., Nam, J. B., Lee, J. J., and Sohn, D. H. Water-soluble polysaccharide from Eleutherococcus senticosus stems attenuates fulminant hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2004;94(6):298-304. View abstract.
Park, S. H., Kim, S. K., Shin, I. H., Kim, H. G., and Choe, J. Y. Effects of AIF on Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: Double-blind, Randomized Placebo-controlled Study. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;13(1):33-37. View abstract.
Pearce, P. T., Zois, I., Wynne, K. N., and Funder, J. W. Panax ginseng and Eleuthrococcus senticosus extracts--in vitro studies on binding to steroid receptors. Endocrinol.Jpn. 1982;29(5):567-573. View abstract.
Perfect, M. M., Bourne, N., Ebel, C., and Rosenthal, S. L. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of genital herpes. Herpes. 2005;12(2):38-41. View abstract.
Plowman, S. A. K. Dustman H. Walicek C. Corless and G. Ehlers. The effects of ENDUROX on the physiological responses to stair-stepping exercise. Res.Q.Exerc.Sport. 1999;70:385-388.
Provalova, N. V., Skurikhin, E. G., Pershina, O. V., Minakova, M. Y., Suslov, N. I., and Dygai, A. M. Possible mechanisms underlying the effect of natural preparations on erythropoiesis under conditions of conflict situation. Bull.Exp Biol Med 2003;136(2):165-169. View abstract.
Provalova, N. V., Skurikhin, E. G., Pershina, O. V., Suslov, N. I., Minakova, M. Y., Dygai, A. M., and Gol'dberg, E. D. Mechanisms underling the effects of adaptogens on erythropoiesis during paradoxical sleep deprivation. Bull.Exp Biol Med 2002;133(5):428-432. View abstract.
Provalova, N. V., Skurikhin, E. G., Suslov, N. I., Dygai, A. M., and Gol'dberg, E. D. Effects of adaptogens on granulocytopoiesis during paradoxical sleep deprivation. Bull.Exp Biol Med 2002;133(3):261-264. View abstract.
Provino, R. The role of adaptogens in stress management. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2010;22(2):41-49.
Raman, P., Dewitt, D. L., and Nair, M. G. Lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of acidic aqueous extracts of some dietary supplements. Phytother.Res 2008;22(2):204-212. View abstract.
Rasmussen, P. Phytotherapy in an influenza pandemic. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2009;21(2):32-37.
Rhéaume, K. Adapting to stress. Alive: Canada's Natural Health & Wellness Magazine 2007;298:56-57.
Rhim, Y. T., Kim, H., Yoon, S. J., Kim, S. S., Chang, H. K., Lee, T. H., Lee, H. H., Shin, M. C., Shin, M. S., and Kim, C. J. Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus on 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of exercised rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-8-2007;114(1):38-43. View abstract.
Richter, R, Hanssen, H. P, Koenig, W. A, and Koch, A. Essential oil composition of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Maxim roots. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2007;19(3):209-210.
Row, K. H and Yan, H. Isolation of acanthoside-D from Acanthopanax senticosus using supercritical fluid extraction. Asian Journal of Chemistry Sahibabad: Asian Journal of Chemistry 2008;20(6):4875-4882.
Roxas, M. and Jurenka, J. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern.Med Rev. 2007;12(1):25-48. View abstract.
Schmolz, M. W., Sacher, F., and Aicher, B. The synthesis of Rantes, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13 in human whole-blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots. Phytother.Res 2001;15(3):268-270. View abstract.
Seo, J. W., Jeong, J. H., Shin, C. G., Lo, S. C., Han, S. S., Yu, K. W., Harada, E., Han, J. Y., and Choi, Y. E. Overexpression of squalene synthase in Eleutherococcus senticosus increases phytosterol and triterpene accumulation. Phytochemistry 2005;66(8):869-877. View abstract.
Shakhova, E. G., Spasov, A. A., Ostrovskii, O. V., Konovalova, I. V., Chernikov, M. V., and Mel'nikova, G. I. [Effectiveness of using the drug Kan-Yang in children with acute respiratory viral infection (clinico-functional data)]. Vestn.Otorinolaringol. 2003;(3):48-50. View abstract.
Shao, J, Di LiuQing, and Xie Xin. Determination of Chlorogenic acid and Hyperoside in leaves of acanthopanax senticosus produced in different areas by HPLC. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine Beijing: Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine 2009;16(10):41-43.
Shohael, A. M, Hahn, E. J, and Paek, K. Y. Somatic embryogenesis and secondary metabolite production through bioreactor culture of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus). Acta Horticulturae 2007;764:181-185.
Smalinskiene, A., Lesauskaite, V., Zitkevicius, V., Savickiene, N., Savickas, A., Ryselis, S., Sadauskiene, I., and Ivanov, L. Estimation of the combined effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract and cadmium on liver cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009;1171:314-320. View abstract.
Smith, M. and Boon, H. S. Counseling cancer patients about herbal medicine. Patient.Educ.Couns. 1999;38(2):109-120. View abstract.
Sohn, S. H, Jang, I. S, Moon, Y. S., Kim, Y. J, Lee, S. H, Ko, Y. H, Kang, S. Y, and Kang, H. K. Effect of dietary Siberian ginseng and Eucommia on broiler performance, serum biochemical profiles and telomere length. Korean Journal of Poultry Science 2008;35(3):283-290.
Soya, H., Deocaris, C. C., Yamaguchi, K., Ohiwa, N., Saito, T., Nishijima, T., Kato, M., Tateoka, M., Matsui, T., Okamoto, M., and Fujikawa, T. Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus harms (Siberian ginseng) activates NTS and SON/PVN in the rat brain. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2008;72(9):2476-2480. View abstract.
Sun, H., Lv, H., Zhang, Y., Meng, X., Sui, J., Wang, X., and Bi, K. HPLC method for preliminary analysis of constituents in rat blood after oral administration of the extract of Acanthopanax senticosus. J Sep.Sci 2007;30(18):3120-3126. View abstract.
Sun, H., Lv, H., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Bi, K., and Cao, H. A rapid and sensitive UPLC-ESI MS method for analysis of isofraxidin, a natural antistress compound, and its metabolites in rat plasma. J Sep.Sci 2007;30(18):3202-3206. View abstract.
Sun, H., Lv, H., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Bi, K., and Cao, H. Pharmacokinetics of isofraxidin in rat plasma after oral administration of the extract of Acanthopanax senticosus using HPLC with solid phase extraction method. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2007;55(9):1291-1295. View abstract.
Sun, W. J. [Determination of syringin in Acanthopanax senticosus by HPLC]. Zhong.Yao Tong.Bao. 1986;11(4):42-3, 40. View abstract.
Tohda, C., Ichimura, M., Bai, Y., Tanaka, K., Zhu, S., and Komatsu, K. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss. J Pharmacol.Sci 2008;107(3):329-339. View abstract.
Tolonen, A., Joutsamo, T., Mattlla, S., Kamarainen, T., and Jalonen, J. Identification of isomeric dicaffeoylquinic acids from Eleutherococcus senticosus using HPLC-ESI/TOF/MS and 1H-NMR methods. Phytochem.Anal. 2002;13(6):316-328. View abstract.
Tong, L., Huang, T. Y., and Li, J. L. [Effects of plant polysaccharides on cell proliferation and cell membrane contents of sialic acid, phospholipid and cholesterol in S 180 and K 562 cells]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1994;14(8):482-484. View abstract.
Tournas, V. H., Katsoudas, E., and Miracco, E. J. Moulds, yeasts and aerobic plate counts in ginseng supplements. Int J Food Microbiol. 4-25-2006;108(2):178-181. View abstract.
Tseitlin, G. I. and Saltanov, A. I. [Indices of antistress activity of an Eleutherococcus extracts in lymphogranulomatosis after splenectomy]. Pediatriia. 1981;(5):25-27. View abstract.
Tutel'yan, A. V., Klebanov, G. I., Il'ina, S. E., and Lyubitskii, O. B. Comparative study of antioxidant properties of immunoregulatory peptides. Bull.Exp Biol Med 2003;136(2):155-158. View abstract.
Umeyama, A., Shoji, N., Takei, M., Endo, K., and Arihara, S. Ciwujianosides D1 and C1: powerful inhibitors of histamine release induced by anti-immunoglobulin E from rat peritoneal mast cells. J Pharm.Sci. 1992;81(7):661-662. View abstract.
Vanhaelen, M. and Vanhaelen-Fastre, R. Quantitative determination of biologically active constituents in crude extracts of medicinal plants by thin-layer chromatography-densitometry. II. Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Panax ginseng Meyer and Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle. J Chromatogr. 11-16-1984;312:497-503. View abstract.
Wagner, H., Proksch, A., Riess-Maurer, I., Vollmar, A., Odenthal, S., Stuppner, H., Jurcic, K., Le, Turdu M., and Heur, Y. H. [Immunostimulant action of polysaccharides (heteroglycans) from higher plants. Preliminary communication]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1984;34(6):659-661. View abstract.
Wang, S. L., Li, Y. D., and Zhao, Q. [Effects of Crataegus pinnatifidae, Astragalus memoranaceus and Acanthopanax senticosus on cholesterol metabolism in the guinea pig]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1987;7(8):483-4, 454. View abstract.
Wang, X., Hai, C. X., Liang, X., Yu, S. X., Zhang, W., and Li, Y. L. The protective effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms aqueous extracts against oxidative stress: role of Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-3-2010;127(2):424-432. View abstract.
Watanabe, K., Kamata, K., Sato, J., and Takahashi, T. Fundamental studies on the inhibitory action of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms on glucose absorption. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-28-2010;132(1):193-199. View abstract.
Weng S, Tang J, Wang G, Wang X, and Wang H. Comparison of the addition of Siberian ginseng (Acanthopanax senticosus) versus fluoxetine to lithium for the treatment of bipolar disorder in adolescents: a randomized, double-blind trial. Curr Ther Res 2007;68(4):280-290.
Wiegant, F. A., Surinova, S., Ytsma, E., Langelaar-Makkinje, M., Wikman, G., and Post, J. A. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology. 2009;10(1):27-42. View abstract.
Wildfeuer, A. and Mayerhofer, D. [The effects of plant preparations on cellular functions in body defense]. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44(3):361-366. View abstract.
Williams M. Immunoprotection against herpes simplex type II infection by eleutherococcus root extract. J Alt Comp Med 1995;13:9-12.
Wilson, L. Review of adaptogenic mechanisms: Eleuthrococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, Schisandra chinensis and Withania somnifera. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2007;19(3):126-131.
Wolski, T, Baj, T, Ludwiczuk, A, Saata, M, and Gowniak, K. The raw materials possess adaptogenic properties and estimates of the adaptogens contents in extracts and obtained from genus Panax preparations. Postepy Fitoterapii Warszawa: Borgis Wydawnictwo Medyczne 2009;10(2):77-97.
Won, K. M, Kim, P. K, Lee, S. H, and Park, S. I. Effect of the residuum extract of Siberian ginseng Eleutherococcus senticosus on non-specific immunity in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fisheries Science 2008;74(3):635-641.
Wu JianGuo. Potential effects of climate change on the distributions of 5 plants in China. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany Beijing: Science Press 2010;18(5):511-522.
Wu, R. H. [Identification of Acanthopanax senticosus by TLC and UV absorption spectroscopy]. Zhong.Yao Tong.Bao. 1986;11(1):18-20. View abstract.
Wu, Y. N. X. Q. Wang Y. F. Zhao J. Z. Wang H. J. Chen and H. Z. Effect of Ciwujia (Radix acanthopanacis senticosus) preparation on human stamina. J.Hyg.Res. 1996;25:57-61.
Xi, M., Hai, C., Tang, H., Chen, M., Fang, K., and Liang, X. Antioxidant and antiglycation properties of total saponins extracted from traditional Chinese medicine used to treat diabetes mellitus. Phytother.Res 2008;22(2):228-237. View abstract.
Xie, S. S. [Immunoregulatory effect of polysaccharide of Acanthopanax senticosus (PAS). I. Immunological mechanism of PAS against cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong.Liu Za Zhi. 1989;11(5):338-340. View abstract.
Yamazaki, T. and Tokiwa, T. Isofraxidin, a coumarin component from Acanthopanax senticosus, inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression and cell invasion of human hepatoma cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2010;33(10):1716-1722. View abstract.
Yamazaki, T., Shimosaka, S., Sasaki, H., Matsumura, T., Tukiyama, T., and Tokiwa, T. (+)-Syringaresinol-di-O-beta-D-glucoside, a phenolic compound from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms, suppresses proinflammatory mediators in SW982 human synovial sarcoma cells by inhibiting activating protein-1 and/or nuclear factor-kappaB activities. Toxicol.In Vitro 2007;21(8):1530-1537. View abstract.
Yan, Y, Cheng Dong, and Yao WenHuan. Experimental study on the effects of Rhodiola Sachalinensis and Acanthopanax Senticosus extracts on the hypoxia tolerance of mice. Modern Preventive Medicine Chengdu: Magazine House of Modern Preventive Medicine 2010;37(15):2806-2807.
Yan, Z. W., Liu, J. P., Lu, D., Groundwater, P., He, C. Y., and Li, P. Y. A new 3,4-seco-lupane-type triterpenoid from the pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms. Nat.Prod.Res 2010;24(16):1523-1527. View abstract.
Yang Lei, Gao YanFeng, Liu Yang, Hao JingWei, and Zu YuanGang. Optimized ultrasonic extraction of main phenolic glycosides and aglycones from Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products Nanjing: Editorial Board of Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products 2009;29(3):93-99.
Yang LianYu, Sun YanDan, Liu JiaJia, Zhai Bo, Chen DaLe, and Xu YongPing. Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on antioxidative function in calf liver. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University Changchun: Jilin Agricultural University 2008;30(1):75-78.
Yang, G, Li Wei, Huang Chao, Lin Lin, Zhang QingBo, and Koike, K. Phenolic constituents from the stems of Acanthopanax senticosus. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 2011;46(6):876-879.
Yao, L, Kim KyoungSook, Kang NamYoung, Lee YoungChoon, Chung EunSook, Cui Zheng, Kim CheorlHo, Han XiangFu, Kim JungIn, Yun YeongAe, and Lee JaiHeon. Inhibitory effect of a traditional Chinese formulation, Hyul-Tong-Ryung, on PMA-induced MMP-9 expression in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Journal of Traditional Medicines Sugitani: Medical and Pharmaceutical Society for Wakan-Yaku 2011;26(1):25-34.
Yarnell E and Abascal K. Holistic approaches to prostate cancer. Altern Complement Ther 2008;14(4):164-180.
Yi, J. M., Hong, S. H., Kim, J. H., Kim, H. K., Song, H. J., and Kim, H. M. Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus stem on mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79(3):347-352. View abstract.
Yim, S, Jeong JuCheol, and Jeong JiHoon. Effect of an extract of Acanthopanax senticosus on restoration of hair loss in mouse. Chung-Ang Journal of Medicine Seoul: Institute of Medical Science, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine 2007;32(4):81-84.
Yu, C. Y., Kim, S. H., Lim, J. D., Kim, M. J., and Chung, I. M. Intraspecific relationship analysis by DNA markers and in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity in Eleutherococcus senticosus. Toxicol.In Vitro 2003;17(2):229-236. View abstract.
Zauski, D and Smolarz, H. D. Eleutherococcus senticosus - an exemplary adaptogenic plant. Postepy Fitoterapii Warszawa: Borgis Wydawnictwo Medyczne 2008;9(4):240-246.
Zauski, D, Smolarz, H. D, and Chomicki, A. TLC screening for eleutherosides B, E, and E1, and isofraxidin in the roots of six Eleutherococcus species cultivated in Poland. Acta Chromatographica 2010;22(4):581-589.
Zgorka, G. and Kawka, S. Application of conventional UV, photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence (FL) detection to analysis of phenolic acids in plant material and pharmaceutical preparations. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2001;24(5-6):1065-1072. View abstract.
Zhang Yi. Advances in the clinical application of Aidi Injection. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine Beijing: Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine 2007;14(6):91-93.
Zhang, X. L., Ren, F., Huang, W., Ding, R. T., Zhou, Q. S., and Liu, X. W. Anti-fatigue activity of extracts of stem bark from Acanthopanax senticosus. Molecules. 2011;16(1):28-37. View abstract.
Zhang, Y. Advances in the clinical application of Aidi Injection. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine Beijing: Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine 2007;14(6):91-93.
Zhao, Y. Q., Yang, S. S., Liu, J. H., and Zhao, G. R. [Chemical constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupt. et Maxim.) Harms]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1993;18(7):428-9, 448. View abstract.
Zheng, CY, Ping WenXiang, Liu SongMei, and Zu YuanGang. Analysis of sugars in Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) by HPLC with ELSD detection. Bull Bot Res 2007;27(3):376-379.
Zhou, C, Gu YongJian, Jiang ZhengLin, and Liu ChunFeng. Effect of ASS on the expression of HIF-1? in PC12 cells. Shandong Medical Journal Jinan: Medical Publishing House of Shandong Province 2009;49(47):16-17.
Zhou, YC, Yi ChuanZhu, and Hu YiXiu. Experimental study on the antiradiation and antifatigue effects of soft capsule made of cistanche and acanthopanax senticosus and jujube. China Tropical Medicine Hainan: Editorial Department of China Tropical Medicine 2008;8(1):35-37.
Jacobsson, I., Jonsson, A. K., Gerden, B., and Hagg, S. Spontaneously reported adverse reactions in association with complementary and alternative medicine substances in Sweden. Pharmacoepidemiol.Drug Saf 2009;18(11):1039-1047.View abstract.
Amaryan G, Astvatsatryan V, Gabrielyan E, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. Phytomedicine 2003;10:271-85. View abstract.
Asano K, Takahashi T, Miyashita M, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract on human physical working capacity. Planta Med 1986;175-7. View abstract.
Aslanyan G, Amroyan E, Gabrielyan E, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study of single dose effects of ADAPT-232 on cognitive functions. Phytomedicine 2010;17:494-9. View abstract.
Awang DVC. Siberian ginseng toxicity may be case of mistaken identity (letter). CMAJ 1996;155:1237. View abstract.
Azizov, A. P. [Effects of eleutherococcus, elton, leuzea, and leveton on the blood coagulation system during training in athletes]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997;60(5):58-60. View abstract.
Bang JS, Chung YH, et al. Clinical effect of a polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus on alcohol hangover. Pharmazie. 2015 Apr;70(4):269-73.
Bespalov, V. G., Aleksandrov, V. A., Iaremenko, K. V., Davydov, V. V., Lazareva, N. L., Limarenko, A. I., Slepian, L. I., Petrov, A. S., and Troian, D. N. [The inhibiting effect of phytoadaptogenic preparations from bioginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Rhaponticum carthamoides on the development of nervous system tumors in rats induced by N-nitrosoethylurea]. Vopr Onkol 1992;38(9):1073-1080. View abstract.
Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:624S-36S.. View abstract.
Caceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, et al. Use of visual analogue scale measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo study. Phytomedicine 1999;6:217-23.. View abstract.
Caceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, Wikman GK. Prevention of common colds with Andrographis Paniculata dried extract: a pilot, double-blind trial. Phytomedicine 1997;4:101-4.
Cheuvroni SN, Moffatt RF, Biggerstaff KD, et al. Effects of Endurox on various metabolic responses to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30 Suppl:S32.
Cicero AF, Derosa G, Brillante R, et al. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl 2004;9:69-73. View abstract.
Coon JT, Ernst E. Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Planta Med 2004;70:293-8. View abstract.
Dasgupta A, Tso G, Wells A. Effect of Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and Indian ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha on serum digoxin measurement by Digoxin III, a new digoxin immunoassay. J Clin Lab Anal 2008;22:295-301. View abstract.
Dasgupta A, Wu S, Actor J, et al. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs. Am J Clin Pathol 2003;119:298-303. View abstract.
Dasgupta A. Herbal supplements and therapeutic drug monitoring: focus on digoxin immunoassays and interactions with St. John's wort. Ther Drug Monit. 2008;30(2):212-7. View abstract.
Davydov M, Krikorian AD. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:345-93. View abstract.
Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Chavin KD, et al. Siberian Ginseng (Eleutheroccus senticosus) Effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 Activity in Normal Volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2003;31:519-22.. View abstract.
Dowling EA, Redondo DR, Branch JD, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:482-9. View abstract.
Dusman K, Plowman SA, McCarthy K, et al. The effects of Endurox on the physiological responses to stair-stepping exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30 Suppl:S323.
Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense; Breast Cancer Res Prog, Atlanta, GA 2000;Jun 8-11.
Eschbach LF, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, et al. The effect of siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000;10:444-51. View abstract.
Franklyn AJ, Bettenridge J, Daykin J, et al. Long-term thyroxine treatment and bone mineral density. Lancet 1992;340:9-13. View abstract.
Freye E, GLeske J. Siberian ginseng results in beneficial effects on glucose metabolism in diabetes type 2 patients: a double blind placebo-controlled study in comparison to panax ginseng. Int J Clin Nutr. 2013;1(1):11-17.
Fuchikami H, Satoh H, Tsujimoto M, Ohdo S, Ohtani H, Sawada Y. Effects of herbal extracts on the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos 2006;34:577-82. View abstract.
Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. Phytomedicine 2002;9:589-97.. View abstract.
Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Sacher F, Esperester A. Antiviral activity of an extract derived from roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Antiviral Res 2001;50:223-8. View abstract.
Hacker B, Medon PJ. Cytotoxic effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus aqueous extracts in combination with N6-(delta 2-isopentenyl)-adenosine and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine against L1210 leukemia cells. J Pharm Sci 1984;73:270-2. View abstract.
Han L, Cai D. [Clinical and experimental study on treatment of acute cerebral infarction with Acanthopanax Injection]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1998;18:472-4. View abstract.
Hancke J, Burgos R, Caceres D, Wikman G. A double-blind study with a new monodrug Kan Jang: decrease of symptoms and improvement in the recovery from common colds. Phytotherapy Res 1995;9:559-62.
Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Gershwin ME, et al. Variability in commercial ginseng products: an analysis of 25 preparations. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:1101-6. View abstract.
Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Zhou L, et al. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on c-DNA-expressed P450 drug metabolizing enzymes. Alt Ther 2001;7:S14.
Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R et al. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med 2004;34:51-61. View abstract.
Hikino H, Takahashi M, Otake K, Konno C. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of eleutherans A, B, C, D, E, F, and G: glycans of Eleutherococcus senticosus roots. J Nat Prod 1986;49:293-7. View abstract.
Koren G, Randor S, Martin S, Danneman D. Maternal ginseng use associated with neonatal androgenization. JAMA 1990;264:2866. View abstract.
Kormosh, N., Laktionov, K., and Antoshechkina, M. Effect of a combination of extract from several plants on cell-mediated and humoral immunity of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Phytother Res 2006;20(5):424-425. View abstract.
Kulichenko LL, Kireyeva LV, Malyshkina EN, Wikman G. A Randomized, Controlled Study of Kan Jang versus Amantadine in the Treatment of Influenza in Volgograd. J Herb Pharmacother 2003;3:77-92. View abstract.
Kuo J, Chen KW, Cheng IS, et al. The effect of eight weeks of supplementation with Eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance capacity and metabolism in human. Chin J Physiol 2010;53:105-11. View abstract.
Martinez, B. and Staba, E. J. The physiological effects of Aralia, Panax and Eleutherococcus on exercised rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 1984;35(2):79-85. View abstract.
Maslov, L. N. and Guzarova, N. V. [Cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic properties of preparations from Leuzea carthamoides, Aralia mandshurica, and Eleutherococcus senticosus]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2007;70(6):48-54. View abstract.
McRae S. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng. CMAJ 1996;155:293-5. View abstract.
Medon PJ, Ferguson PW, Watson CF. Effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on hexobarbital metabolism in vivo and in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 1984;10:235-41. View abstract.
Melchior J, Palm S, Wikman G. Controlled clinical study of standardized Andrographis paniculata in common cold- a pilot trial. Phytomedicine 1996;97;3:315-8.
Melchoir J, Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot and phase III study of activity of standardized Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract fixed combination (Kan Jang) in the treatment of uncomplicated upper-respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine 2000;7:341-50. View abstract.
Mills S, Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Prathanturarug S, et al. Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Pharm Ther 2004;29:37-45. View abstract.
Schaffler K, Wolf OT, Burkart M. No benefit adding Eleutherococcus senticosus to stress management training in stress-related fatigue/weakness, impaired work or concentration, a randomized controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2013 Jul;46(5):181-90.
Schutgens FW, Neogi P, van Wijk EP, et al. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: a pilot-experiment. Phytother Res 2009;23:1103-8. View abstract.
Shang SY, Ma YS, Wang SS. [Effect of eleutherosides on ventricular late potential with coronary heart disease and myocarditis]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1991;11:280-1, 261. View abstract.
Shen ML, Zhai SK, Chen HL, Immunomopharmacological effects of polysaccharides from Acanthopanax senticosus on experimental animals. Int J Immunopharmacol 1991;13:549-54. View abstract.
Shi Z, Liu C, Li R. [Effect of a mixture of Acanthopanax senticosus and Elsholtzia splendens on serum-lipids in patients with hyperlipemia]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1990r;10:155-6, 132. View abstract.
Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:248-58. View abstract.
Smeltzer KD, Gretebeck PJ. Effect of radix Acanthopanax senticosus on submaximal running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30 Suppl:S278.
Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, Chernikov MV, Wikman G. Comparative controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination, Kan Jang and an Echinacea preparation as adjuvant, in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory disease in children. Phytother Res 2004;18:47-53. View abstract.
Sui DY, Lu ZZ, Li SH, Cai Y. [Hypoglycemic effect of saponin isolated from leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxin.) Harms]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1994;19:683-5, 703. View abstract.
Sui DY, Lu ZZ, Ma LN, Fan ZG. [Effects of the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms. On myocardial infarct size in acute ischemic dogs]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1994;19:746-7, 764. View abstract.
Szolomicki S, Samochowiec L, Wojcicki J, Drozdzik M. The influence of active components of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular defense and physical fitness in man. Phytother Res 2000;14:30-5. View abstract.
Takahashi T, Kaku T, Sato T, et al. Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus HARMS extract on drug transport in human intestinal cell line Caco-2. J Nat Med. 2010;64(1):55-62. View abstract.
Thamlikitkul V, Dechatiwongse T, Theerapong S, et al. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Nees for pharyngotonsillitis in adults. J Med Assoc Thai 1991;74:437-42. View abstract.
Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng. A systemic review of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55:567-75. View abstract.
Waller DP, Martin AM, Farnsworth NR, Awang DV. Lack of androgenicity of Siberian ginseng. JAMA 1992;267:2329. View abstract.
Williams M. Immuno-protection against herpes simplex type II infection by eleutherococcus root extract. Int J Altern Complem Med 1995;13:9-12.
Winther K, Ranlov C, Rein E, et al. Russian root (Siberian ginseng) improves cognitive functions in middle-aged people, whereas Ginkgo biloba seems effective only in the elderly. J Neurological Sci 1997;150:S90.
Yun-Choi HS, Kim JH, Lee JR. Potential inhibitors of platelet aggregation from plant sources, III. J Nat Prod 1987;50:1059-64. View abstract.