Any abnormal change in the skin color or texture is called a rash. Rashes are generally areas of irritated or swollen skin. Many rashes are red, itchy, and painful. Some people get rashes due to allergy, some due to infection, whereas some get due to their specific genetic makeup.
Here are the 24 most common skin rashes that you need to know:
- Herpes zoster (Shingles): This is a viral infection in which a red painful rash develops due to the reactivation of the same virus (varicella-zoster) that causes chickenpox.
- Herpes simplex: This is a viral infection that causes painful sores around the mouth or genitals.
- Hives or urticaria: These appear all over the body. They appear like welts. They may be triggered by stress, medicines, insect bites, or certain food.
- Chickenpox: A contagious viral infection that mostly affects children features a super-itchy red skin rash with blisters.
- Tinea corporis: Commonly known as ringworm, it is a superficial fungal infection that can cause an itchy rash anywhere in the body.
- Molluscum contagiosum: This is a viral infection characterized by round, firm, painless bumps.
- Acne: This is a common rash seen in teenagers and may be distressing. Sometimes, it progresses into adulthood. The skin pores clog with oil and dirt and get inflamed causing the blackheads or comedones.
- Erythema infectiosum or Fifth disease: This is a viral infection that commonly occurs during childhood. Signs and symptoms include a red rash on the cheeks that resemble a slapped cheek, fever, sore throat, stomach upset, and headache.
- Pityriasis rosacea: This is a scaly reddish-pink rash that appears mostly on the chest, abdomen, and back and is most common in people between 10 and 35 years of age.
- Tinea capitis: This is a superficial fungal infection of the scalp associated with itching.
- Intertrigo: This is a rash that appears in the folds of skin such as in the groin, folds of the neck, in the axilla, and behind the ears.
- Cellulitis: This is a bacterial infection in the deeper/lower layers of the skin in which there is an extensive red, shiny rash with painful swelling that most commonly appears over the legs.
- Erysipelas: This is a bacterial infection that is similar to cellulitis but which affects the upper layer of the skin.
- Impetigo: This is a highly contagious disease in which sores are found around the nose and mouth.
- Folliculitis: This is inflammation of the hair follicles that results in acne-like rash or sores around the hair follicles.
- Eczema/dermatitis: This is a group of skin conditions caused by a reaction to a particular protein in food, environment, or a metal-like nickel. Depending upon the type and cause of eczema, the rash may be dry or moist. Contact dermatitis happens when you come in contact with something that is most likely to give you a rash. Atopic dermatitis is a rash that most commonly occurs in childhood and accompanies hay fever and asthma in most people.
- Diaper rash: A diaper rash is a term given for rash due to diapers seen in babies. It causes an allergic reaction to the fragrance or material of diaper or bacterial or fungal infection. It happens if the diapers are left on for a long time that causes a moist environment around the groin of the baby.
- Measles: This is a highly contagious viral disease that begins in the respiratory system and gives rise to small, red, flat spots spreading from the face down to the neck, trunks, arms, and legs.
- Drug allergy: This is a reaction to any medicine that can appear in the form of a rash. It may look like a red patch, or in severe cases, it may blister and form red sores.
- Scabies: This is an itchy and highly contagious skin disease caused by a mite that burrows most commonly in the space between the two fingers.
- Insect bite reaction: The bite or sting of insects such as mosquitoes or bees evoke your immune system that makes the stung area itchy and painful. Alternatively, multiple tiny bumps may appear on the part of the body where there is an insect bite.
- Scarlet fever: This is a type of fever that is accompanied by a sore throat and bright red rash all over the body.
- Psoriasis: This is a chronic skin condition characterized by raised, red, scaly patches most commonly over the elbows, knee joints, and finger joints.
- Acne rosacea: This is a chronic skin condition in which a red rash appears most commonly on your cheeks and around your nose.
When should you see a doctor for your rash?
Although not all rashes are serious, some warrant a visit to the doctor. Such instances include:
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RASH 101 IN ADULTS: WHEN TO SEEK MEDICAL TREATMENT. Available at: https://www.aad.org/public/everyday-care/itchy-skin/rash/rash-101