Smoking and Heart Disease Introduction
A person's risk of heart disease and heart attack greatly increases with the number of cigarettes he or she smokes. Smokers continue to increase their risk of heart attack the longer they smoke. People who smoke a pack of cigarettes a day have more than twice the risk of heart attack than nonsmokers. Women who smoke and also take birth control pills increase several times their risk of heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.
Cigarette smoke not only affects smokers. When you smoke, the people around you are also at risk for developing health problems, especially children. Environmental tobacco smoke (also called passive smoke or secondhand smoke) affects people who are frequently around smokers. Secondhand smoke can cause chronic respiratory conditions, cancer, and heart disease. It is estimated that around 35,000 nonsmokers die from heart disease each year as a result of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
How Does Smoking Increase Heart Disease Risk?
The nicotine present in smoke causes heart disease by:
How Can Quitting Smoking Be Helpful?
Now that you know how smoking can be harmful to your health and the health of those around you, here are some ways quitting can be helpful. If you quit smoking, you will:
- Prolong your life.
- Reduce your risk of disease (including heart disease, heart attack,
blood pressure, lung cancer, throat cancer,
gum disease, and
- Feel healthier. After quitting, you won't cough as much, you'll have fewer
sore throats and you will increase your stamina.
- Look better. Quitting can help you prevent face
wrinkles, get rid of
stained teeth, and improve your skin.
- Improve your sense of taste and smell.
- Save money.
How to Quit Smoking
There's no one way to quit smoking that works for everyone. To quit, you must be ready both emotionally and mentally. You must also want to quit smoking for yourself and not to please your friends or family. It helps to plan ahead. This guide may help get you started.
What Should I Do First to Stop Smoking?
Pick a date to stop smoking and then stick to it.
Write down your reasons for quitting smoking. Read over the list every day, before and after you quit. Here are some tips to think about.
- Write down when you smoke, why you smoke, and what you are doing when you
smoke. You will learn what triggers you to smoke.
- Stop smoking cigarettes in certain situations (such as during your work
break or after dinner) before actually quitting.
- Make a list of activities you can do instead of smoking. Be ready to do
something else when you want to smoke.
- Ask your doctor about using
nicotine gum or patches. Some people find these
- Join a smoking cessation support group or program. Call your local chapter of the American Lung Association.
How Can I Avoid Smoking Again?
- Don't carry a lighter, matches, or cigarettes. Keep all of these smoking
reminders out of sight.
- If you live with a smoker, ask that person not to smoke in your presence,
or better yet, to quit with you.
- Don't focus on what you are missing. Think about the healthier way of life
you are gaining.
- When you get the urge to smoke, take a deep breath. Hold it for 10 seconds
and release it slowly. Repeat this several times until the urge to smoke is
- Keep your hands busy. Doodle, play with a pencil or straw, or work on a
- Change activities that were connected to smoking cigarettes. Take a walk or
read a book instead of taking a cigarette break.
- When you can, avoid places, people, and situations associated with smoking.
Hang out with nonsmokers or go to places that don't allow smoking, such as the
movies, museums, shops, or libraries.
- Don't substitute food or sugar-based products for cigarette smoking. Eat
low-calorie, healthful foods (such as carrot or celery sticks, sugar-free hard
candies) or chew gum when the urge to smoke strikes so you can avoid weight
- Drink plenty of fluids, but limit alcoholic and caffeinated beverages. They
can trigger urges to smoke.
- Exercise. Exercising will help you relax.
- Get support for quitting. Tell others about your milestones with pride.
- Work with your doctor to develop a plan using over-the-counter or prescription nicotine-replacement aids.
How Will I Feel When I Quit Smoking?
You may crave cigarettes, be irritable, feel very hungry, cough often, get headaches, or have difficulty concentrating. These symptoms of withdrawal occur because your body is used to nicotine, the active addictive agent within cigarettes.
When withdrawal symptoms occur within the first two weeks after quitting, stay in control. Think about your reasons for quitting. Remind yourself that these are signs that your body is healing and getting used to being without cigarettes.
The withdrawal symptoms are only temporary. They are strongest when you first quit but will usually go away within 10 to 14 days. Remember that withdrawal symptoms are easier to treat than the major diseases -- like heart disease and lung cancer -- that smoking can cause.
You may still have the desire to smoke, since there are many strong associations with smoking. People may associate smoking with specific situations, with a variety of emotions or with certain people in their lives. The best way to overcome these associations is to experience them without smoking cigarettes. If you relapse do not lose hope. Seventy-five percent of those who quit smoke again. Most smokers quit three times before they are successful. If you relapse, don't give up! Plan ahead and think about what you will do next time you get the urge to smoke.
The good news is your risk of heart disease is cut in half after quitting tobacco for one year. After 15 smoke free years, your risk is similar to that of a person who has never smoked.
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Reviewed by James E. Gerace, MD on March 09, 2010