Acétate de Chrome, Atomic Number 24, Chlorure Chromique, Chlorure de Chrome, Chrome, Chrome III, Chrome 3+, Chrome FTG, Chrome Facteur de Tolérance au Glucose, Chrome Trivalent, Chromic Chloride, Chromium Acetate, Chromium Chloride, Chromium Nicotinate, Chromium Picolinate, Chromium Polynicotinate, Chromium Proteinate, Chromium Trichloride, Chromium Tripicolinate, Chromium III, Chromium III Picolinate, Chromium 3+, Cr III, Cr3+, Cromo, Glucose Tolerance Factor-Cr, GTF, GTF Chromium, GTF-Cr, Kali Bichromicum, Nicotinate de Chrome, Numéro Atomique 24, Picolinate de Chrome, Picolinate de Chrome III, Polynicotinate de Chrome, Potassium Bichromate, Protéinate de Chrome, Trichlorure de Chrome, Tripicolinate de Chrome, Trivalent Chromium, Cr.
Chromium is a mineral. It is called an "essential trace element" because very small amounts of chromium are necessary for human health. There are two forms of chromium: trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. The first is found in foods and supplements and is safe for humans. The second is a known toxin that can cause skin problems and lung cancer.
It is also used for depression, Turner's syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), lowering "bad" cholesterol, raising "good" cholesterol in people taking heart medications called beta blockers, metabolic syndrome, heart attack, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and binge eating disorder.
Some people try chromium for body conditioning including weight loss, increasing muscle, and decreasing body fat. Chromium is also used to improve athletic performance, to increase energy, and to prevent age-related mental decline.
Chromium is used intravenously (by IV) as a supplement in nutritional IV drips.
How does it work?
Chromium might help keep blood sugar levels normal by improving the way our bodies use insulin.
Likely Effective for...
- Chromium deficiency. Taking chromium by mouth is effective for preventing chromium deficiency.
Possibly Effective for...
- Diabetes. Some evidence shows that taking chromium picolinate (a chemical compound that contains chromium) by mouth, either alone or along with biotin, can lower fasting blood sugar, lower insulin levels, and help insulin work in people with type 2 diabetes. Also, chromium picolinate might decrease weight gain and fat accumulation in people with type 2 diabetes who are taking a class of antidiabetes medications called sulfonylureas.
Higher chromium doses might be more effective and work more quickly. Higher doses might also lower the level of certain blood fats (cholesterol and triglycerides) in some people.
Early research suggests that chromium picolinate might have the same benefits in people with type 1 diabetes, people who have diabetes as a result of steroid treatment, and people with diabetes the develops during pregnancy.
However, researchers are looking carefully at the results that show chromium might be effective for treating diabetes. It might not help everyone. Some researchers think that chromium supplements benefit only people with poor nutrition or low chromium levels. Chromium levels can be below normal in people with diabetes.
- High levels of cholesterol or other blood fats. Some research shows that taking 15-200 mcg of chromium daily for 6-12 weeks lowers low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol and total cholesterol levels in people with slightly high or high cholesterol levels. Other research suggests that taking chromium for 7-16 months lowers triglycerides and LDL, and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol. Also, taking chromium alone or along with other supplements seems to reduce levels of blood fats in people with high blood fat levels. However, there is some evidence that taking chromium daily for 10 weeks does not improve cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Athletic performance. Some early evidence that suggests taking chromium while participating in resistance training can increase weight loss, body fat loss, and lean body mass. However, most reliable research shows that taking chromium by mouth does not enhance body building, strength, or lean body mass.
- Binge eating disorder. Research suggests that taking chromium picolinate by mouth daily for 6 months does not affect weight, depression symptoms, or the frequency of binge eating in people with binge eating disorder.
- Prediabetes. Taking chromium does not seem to help control sugar levels people with prediabetes.
- Obesity. There is some conflicting evidence about the effects of chromium on obesity. Some limited research suggests that chromium might improve weight loss in some people who are overweight or obese. But the amount of weight loss is probably not clinically significant. Furthermore, most research suggests that taking chromium by mouth does not improve weight loss.
- Schizophrenia. Research shows that taking 400 mcg of chromium daily for 3 months does not affect weight or mental health in people with schizophrenia.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Age-related mental decline. Research suggests that taking 1000 mcg of chromium daily for 12 weeks does not improve memory or depression in older people with mild mental decline. However, images of the brain show that taking chromium can increase some brain activity during memory games.
- High blood sugar associated with HIV treatments. Early research suggests that taking chromium nicotinate or chromium picolinate daily for 8-16 weeks might help reduce insulin resistance in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.
- A type of depression called atypical depression. Early research suggests that chromium picolinate might improve the remission rate in people with atypical depression. However, other evidence suggests that taking chromium picolinate does not improve most symptoms of this type of depression.
- Abnormal cholesterol levels caused by medications. Early research suggests that taking 600 mcg of chromium daily for 2 months increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol in men who take a class of drugs called beta-blockers.
- Bipolar disorder. Early research suggests that taking 600-800 mcg of chromium chloride daily for up to 2 years can decrease the frequency of severe mood disturbances in people with bipolar disorder that is resistant to treatment.
- Long-term depression (dysthymia). There is some early evidence that chromium might improve how people with long-term, mild, depression respond to antidepressants. Taking chromium picolinate or chromium polynicotinate seems to improve mood in people who only partially respond to antidepressants.
- Low blood sugar. Early research suggests that taking chromium chloride daily for 3 months improves symptoms and increases blood sugar levels in people with low blood sugar. Other early research suggests that taking chromium (Biochrome, Pharma-Nord, Denmark) by mouth daily for 3 months improves symptoms, including chilliness, trembling, and disorientation, in people with low blood sugar.
- Metabolic syndrome. Early evidence suggests that taking a specific chromium product (Chromax, Nutrition21, Purchase, NY) twice daily for 12 weeks does not affect weight, waist circumferences, blood sugar, or cholesterol levels in people with metabolic syndrome.
- Heart attack. Research suggests that having low chromium levels in the toenail is associated with an increased risk for heart attack. However, toenail levels might not accurately measure chromium levels in the body. There is no reliable research showing that chromium supplements can prevent a heart attack.
- An ovary disorder known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Early research suggests that taking chromium picolinate once or twice daily might improve the removal of sugar in women with ovarian disease. However, other early research shows that taking chromium does not benefit women with this disease.
- Turner's syndrome (an inherited disease that often leads to diabetes). Early research suggests chromium supplements might improve the processing of sugar and fat in people with Turner's syndrome.
- High blood sugar related to steroid use.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Chromium is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth, short-term. Up to 1000 mcg/day of chromium has been used safely for up to 6 months.
Chromium is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth for longer periods of time. Chromium has been used safely in a small number of studies using doses of 200-1000 mcg daily for up to 2 years. Some people experience side effects such as skin irritation, headaches, dizziness, nausea, mood changes and impaired thinking, judgment, and coordination. High doses have been linked to more serious side effects including blood disorders, liver or kidney damage, and other problems. It is not known for sure if chromium is the actual cause of these side effects.
Breast-feeding: Chromium is LIKELY SAFE to use while breast-feeding when taken by mouth in amounts that are equal to or less than "adequate intake" (AI) levels. The AI for breast-feeding women 14 to 18 years-old is 44 mcg daily. For breast-feeding women 19 to 50 years-old it is 45 mcg daily. There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking higher amounts of chromium if you are breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Children: Chromium is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts that do not exceed the "adequate intake" (AI) levels. For infants 0 to 6 months-old, the AI is 0.2 mcg daily; 7 to 12 months, 5.5 mcg. For children 1 to 3 years-old, the AI is 11 mcg; 4 to 8 years-old, 15 mcg. For boys 9 to 13 years-old, the AI is 25 mcg. For girls 9 to 13 years-old, the AI is 21 mcg; 14 to 18 years-old, 24 mcg. Taking chromium by mouth is POSSIBLY SAFE when used in amounts that exceed the AI levels.
Behavioral or psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, or schizophrenia: Chromium might affect brain chemistry and might make behavioral or psychiatric conditions worse. If you have one of these conditions, be careful when using chromium supplements. Pay attention to any changes in how you feel.
Diabetes: Chromium might lower blood sugar levels too much if taken along with diabetes medications. If you have diabetes, use chromium products cautiously and monitor blood glucose levels closely. Dose adjustments to diabetes medications might be necessary.
Kidney disease: There are at least three reports of kidney damage in patients who took chromium picolinate. Don't take chromium supplements, if you already have kidney disease.
Liver disease: There are at least three reports of liver damage in patients who took chromium picolinate. Don't take chromium supplements, if you already have liver disease.
InsulinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Insulin is used to decrease blood sugar. Chromium might increase how well insulin works. Taking chromium along with insulin might cause your blood sugar to drop too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your insulin might need to be changed.
Levothyroxine (Synthroid, Levothroid, Levoxyl, and others)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taking chromium with levothyroxine (Synthroid) might decrease how much levothyroxine (Synthroid) that the body absorbs. This might make levothyroxine (Synthroid) less effective. To help avoid this interaction, levothyroxine (Synthroid) should be taken 30 minutes before or 3-4 hours after taking chromium.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Chromium might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking chromium along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.
AspirinInteraction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Aspirin might increase how much chromium the body absorbs and increase chromium levels in the blood. In theory, taking aspirin with chromium might increase the risk of adverse effects.
NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
NSAIDs are anti-inflammatory medications used for decreasing pain and swelling. NSAIDs might increase chromium levels in the body and increase the risk of adverse effects. Avoid taking chromium supplements and NSAIDs at the same time.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- General: The safe and tolerable upper intake levels of chromium are not known. However, daily adequate intake (AI) levels for chromium have been established: men 14 to 50 years, 35 mcg; men 51 and older, 30 mcg; women 19 to 50 years, 25 mcg; women 51 and older, 20 mcg; pregnant women 14 to 18 years, 29 mcg; 19 to 50 years, 30 mcg; breast-feeding women 14 to 18 years, 44 mcg; 19 to 50 years, 45 mcg.
- For diabetes: In people with type 2 diabetes, 200-1000 mcg of chromium taken daily in a single or divided doses has been used. Also, a specific combination product providing chromium 600 mcg plus biotin 2 mg daily (Diachrome, Nutrition 21) has also been used for up to 3 months. In addition, 1000 mcg of chromium (as chromium yeast) together with 1000 mg of vitamins C and 800 IU of vitamin E daily for 6 months has been used. In people with gestational diabetes, 4-8 mcg/kg of chromium picolinate daily for 8 weeks has been used. In people with high blood sugar due use of corticosteroid medication, 400 mcg of chromium once daily or 200 mcg three times daily has been used.
- For high cholesterol: 50-250 mcg of chromium as chromium chloride or chromium picolinate, or brewer's yeast containing 15-48 mcg of chromium, has been used 5-7 days weekly for up to 16 months. 200 mcg of chromium polynicotinate along with 100 mg of grape seed extract, taken twice daily for 2 months, has been used. One to two capsules of a specific supplement (Colenon) containing 240 mg of chitosan, 55 mg of Garcinia cambogia extract, and 19 mg of chromium taken daily for 4 weeks has been used.
- General: The safe and tolerable upper intake levels of chromium in children are not known. However, daily adequate intake (AI) levels for chromium have been established: Infants 0 to 6 months, 0.2 mcg; 7 to 12 months, 5.5 mcg; children 1 to 3 years, 11 mcg; 4 to 8 years, 15 mcg; boys 9 to 13 years, 25 mcg; girls 9 to 13 years, 21 mcg; 14 to 18 years, 24 mcg.
- For high cholesterol: 400-600 mcg of chromium polynicotinate and 1000-1500 mg of glucomannan has been used twice daily for 8 weeks.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Aghdassi, E., Arendt, B. M., Salit, I. E., Mohammed, S. S., Jalali, P., Bondar, H., and Allard, J. P. In patients with HIV-infection, chromium supplementation improves insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Curr HIV.Res 2010;8(2):113-120. View abstract.
Aguilar, M. V., Jimenez-Jimenez, F. J., Molina, J. A., Meseguer, I., Mateos-Vega, C. J., Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J., de Bustos, F., Gomez-Escalonilla, C., Ort-Pareja, M., Zurdo, M., and Martinez-Para MC. Cerebrospinal fluid selenium and chromium levels in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(10-12):1245-1251. View abstract.
Aharoni, A., Tesler, B., Paltieli, Y., Tal, J., Dori, Z., and Sharf, M. Hair chromium content of women with gestational diabetes compared with nondiabetic pregnant women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55(1):104-107. View abstract.
Ali, A., Ma, Y., Reynolds, J., Wise, J. P., Sr., Inzucchi, S. E., and Katz, D. L. Chromium effects on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in persons at risk for diabetes mellitus. Endocr.Pract. 2011;17(1):16-25. View abstract.
Almada A, Kreider R, Harmon K, and et al. Effects of ingesting a nutritional supplement containing chromium picolinate and boron on body composition during resistance-training [abstract]. FASEB J 1995;9:A1015.
Amann, B. L., Mergl, R., Vieta, E., Born, C., Hermisson, I., Seemueller, F., Dittmann, S., and Grunze, H. A 2-year, open-label pilot study of adjunctive chromium in patients with treatment-resistant rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. J Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2007;27(1):104-106. View abstract.
Amato, P., Morales, A. J., and Yen, S. S. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and body composition in healthy, nonobese, older men and women. J Gerontol.A Biol.Sci Med Sci 2000;55(5):M260-M263. View abstract.
Anderson R and Kozlovsky A. Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self- selected diets. Am J.Clin.Nutr. 1985;41(6):1177-1183. View abstract.
Anderson R, Cheng N, Bryden N, and et al. Beneficial effects of chromium for people with type II diabetes [abstract]. Diabetes 1996;45(Suppl 2):124 A.
Anderson R, Polansky M, Bryden N, and et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. Metabolism 1983;32(9):894-899. View abstract.
Anderson RA, Polansky MM, and Bryden NA. Acute effects on chromium, copper, zinc, and selected clinical variables in urine and serum of male runners. Biological Trace Element Research 1984;6:327-336.
Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, and et al. Effects of chromium supplementation on urinary Cr excretion of human subjects and correlation of Cr excretion with selected clinical parameters. J.Nutr. 1983;113(2):276-281. View abstract.
Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr.Rev. 1998;56(9):266-270. View abstract.
Anderson, R. A. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2000;26(1):22-27. View abstract.
Anderson, R. A. Essentiality of chromium in humans. Sci.Total Environ. 10-1-1989;86(1-2):75-81. View abstract.
Anderson, R. A. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. J Am.Coll.Nutr. 1997;16(5):404-410. View abstract.
Anderson, R. A. Trace elements and cardiovascular diseases. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol.(Copenh) 1986;59 Suppl 7:317-324. View abstract.
Anderson, R. A., Bryden, N. A., and Polansky, M. M. Serum chromium of human subjects: effects of chromium supplementation and glucose. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1985;41(3):571-577. View abstract.
Anderson, R. A., Bryden, N. A., Polansky, M. M., and Deuster, P. A. Exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained men consuming a constant diet. J Appl.Physiol 1988;64(1):249-252. View abstract.
Anderson, R. A., Polansky, M. M., Bryden, N. A., Roginski, E. E., Patterson, K. Y., Veillon, C., and Glinsmann, W. Urinary chromium excretion of human subjects: effects of chromium supplementation and glucose loading. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1982;36(6):1184-1193. View abstract.
Anderson, R. A., Roussel, A. M., Zouari, N., Mahjoub, S., Matheau, J. M., and Kerkeni, A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2001;20(3):212-218. View abstract.
Anton, S. D., Morrison, C. D., Cefalu, W. T., Martin, C. K., Coulon, S., Geiselman, P., Han, H., White, C. L., and Williamson, D. A. Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol.Ther. 2008;10(5):405-412. View abstract.
Bagdon RE and Hazen RE. Skin permeation and cutaneous hypersensitivity as a basis for making risk assessments of chromium as a soil contaminant. Environ.Health Perspect. 1991;92:111-119. View abstract.
Bahadori, B., Wallner, S., Schneider, H., Wascher, T. C., and Toplak, H. [Effect of chromium yeast and chromium picolinate on body composition of obese, non-diabetic patients during and after a formula diet]. Acta Med Austriaca 1997;24(5):185-187. View abstract.
Bahijiri, S. M., Mira, S. A., Mufti, A. M., and Ajabnoor, M. A. The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast supplementation on glucose tolerance, serum lipids and drug dosage in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Saudi.Med.J. 2000;21(9):831-837. View abstract.
Balk, E. M., Tatsioni, A., Lichtenstein, A. H., Lau, J., and Pittas, A. G. Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2007;30(8):2154-2163. View abstract.
Bartlett, H. E. and Eperjesi, F. Nutritional supplementation for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008;28(6):503-523. View abstract.
Bharmal, S. V., Moyes, V., Ahmed, S., and Grossman, A. Hypoglycaemia: possible mediation by chromium salt medication. Hormones.(Athens.) 2010;9(2):181-183. View abstract.
Bourn DM, Gibson RS, Martinez OB, and et al. The effect of chromium supplementation on serum lipid levels in a selected sample of Canadian postmenopausal women. Biological Trace Element Research 1986;9:197-205.
Boyd SG, Boone BE, Smith AR, and et al. Combined dietary chromium picolinate supplementation and an exercise program leads to a reduction of serum cholesterol and insulin in college-aged subjects. J Nutr Biochem 1998;9:471-475.
Bulbulian R, Pringle DD, and Liddy MS. Chromium picolinate supplementation in male and female swimmers [abstract]. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1996;28(5 Supplement):s111.
Bunner S and McGinnis R. Chromium-induced hypoglycemia. Psychosomatics 1998;39(3):298-299. View abstract.
Caglieri, A., Goldoni, M., De, Palma G., Mozzoni, P., Gemma, S., Vichi, S., Testai, E., Panico, F., Corradi, M., Tagliaferri, S., and Costa, L. G. Exposure to low levels of hexavalent chromium: target doses and comparative effects on two human pulmonary cell lines. Acta Biomed. 2008;79 Suppl 1:104-115. View abstract.
Campbell W, Joseph L, and Davey S. Effects of resistance training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. J.Appl.Physiol 1999;86(1):29-39. View abstract.
Cefalu WT, Bell-Farrow AD, Wang ZQ, and et al. The effect of chromium supplementation on carbohydrate metabolism and body fat distribution [abstract]. Diabetes 1997;46(suppl 1):55A.
Cefalu, W. T. and Hu, F. B. Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27(11):2741-2751. View abstract.
Cefalu, WT. Effect of chromium picolinate on insulin sensitivity in vivo. J Trace Elem Exptl Med 1999;12:71-83.
Chen, G., Liu, P., Pattar, G. R., Tackett, L., Bhonagiri, P., Strawbridge, A. B., and Elmendorf, J. S. Chromium activates glucose transporter 4 trafficking and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Mol.Endocrinol. 2006;20(4):857-870. View abstract.
Cheng N. Follow-up survey of people in China with type 2 diabetes mellitus consuming supplemental chromium. J Trace Elem Exptl Med 1999;12:71-83.
Chhabra, D., Oda, K., Jagannath, P., Utsunomiya, H., Takekoshi, S., and Nimura, Y. Chronic heavy metal exposure and gallbladder cancer risk in India, a comparative study with Japan. Asian Pac.J.Cancer Prev. 2012;13(1):187-190. View abstract.
Clancy, S. P., Clarkson, P. M., DeCheke, M. E., Nosaka, K., Freedson, P. S., Cunningham, J. J., and Valentine, B. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition, strength, and urinary chromium loss in football players. Int.J.Sport Nutr. 1994;4(2):142-153. View abstract.
Clarkson, P. M. Effects of exercise on chromium levels. Is supplementation required? Sports Med 1997;23(6):341-349. View abstract.
Clarkson, P. M. Micronutrients and exercise: anti-oxidants and minerals. J Sports Sci 1995;13 Spec No:S11-S24. View abstract.
Clausen J. Chromium induced clinical improvement in symptomatic hypoglycemia. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1988;17:229-236. View abstract.
Cowart VS. Dietary supplements: alternatives to anabolic steroids? The Physician and Sportsmedicine 1992;20(3):189-193, 196, 198.
Crawford, V., Scheckenbach, R., and Preuss, H. G. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diabetes Obes.Metab 1999;1(6):331-337. View abstract.
Cruz, M. J., Costa, R., Marquilles, E., Morell, F., and Munoz, X. [Occupational asthma caused by chromium and nickel]. Arch.Bronconeumol. 2006;42(6):302-306. View abstract.
Davi, G., Santilli, F., and Patrono, C. Nutraceuticals in diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Cardiovasc.Ther 2010;28(4):216-226. View abstract.
Diaz, M. L., Watkins, B. A., Li, Y., Anderson, R. A., and Campbell, W. W. Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2008;19(1):61-68. View abstract.
Docherty, J. P., Sack, D. A., Roffman, M., Finch, M., and Komorowski, J. R. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving. J Psychiatr.Pract. 2005;11(5):302-314. View abstract.
Drake, T. C., Rudser, K. D., Seaquist, E. R., and Saeed, A. Chromium infusion in hospitalized patients with severe insulin resistance: a retrospective analysis. Endocr.Pract. 2012;18(3):394-398. View abstract.
Elias, A. N., Grossman, M. K., and Valenta, L. J. Use of the artificial beta cell (ABC) in the assessment of peripheral insulin sensitivity: effect of chromium supplementation in diabetic patients. Gen.Pharmacol. 1984;15(6):535-539. View abstract.
Elwood, J. C., Nash, D. T., and Streeten, D. H. Effect of high-chromium brewer's yeast on human serum lipids. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 1982;1(3):263-274. View abstract.
Evans G and Pouchnik D. Composition and biological activity of chromium-pyridine carboxylate complexes. J.Inorg.Biochem. 2-15-1993;49(3):177-187. View abstract.
Evans, GW. The effect of chromium picolinate on insulin controlled parameters in humans. Int J Biosoc Med Res 1989;11(2):163-180.
Feiner, J. J., McNurlan, M. A., Ferris, R. E., Mynarcik, D. C., and Gelato, M. C. Chromium picolinate for insulin resistance in subjects with HIV disease: a pilot study. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2008;10(2):151-158. View abstract.
Feng J, Lin D, Zheng A, and et al. Chromium picolinate reduces insulin requirement in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Diabetes Association 62nd Scientific Sessions, June 14-18 2002;
Gao, W., Liu, L., Liu, Z. Y., Li, X. D., and Li, C. Interstitial injection of (32)P-chromic phosphate during lung cancer resection to treat occult lymphatic metastasis. Nucl.Med.Commun. 2009;30(6):420-426. View abstract.
Gatto, N. M., Kelsh, M. A., Mai, D. H., Suh, M., and Proctor, D. M. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34(4):388-399. View abstract.
Ghosh, D., Bhattacharya, B., Mukherjee, B., Manna, B., Sinha, M., Chowdhury, J., and Chowdhury, S. Role of chromium supplementation in Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2002;13(11):690-697. View abstract.
Gibb, H. J., Lees, P. S., Pinsky, P. F., and Rooney, B. C. Clinical findings of irritation among chromium chemical production workers. Am J Ind.Med 2000;38(2):127-131. View abstract.
Gibb, H. J., Lees, P. S., Pinsky, P. F., and Rooney, B. C. Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production. Am J Ind.Med 2000;38(2):115-126. View abstract.
Girola M, De Bernardi M, and Contos S, et al. Dose effect in lipid-lowering activity of a new dietary integrator (chitosan, Garcinia cambogia extract and chrome). Acta Toxicol Ther 1996;17(1):25-40.
Glinsmann, W. H. and Mertz, W. Effect of trivalent chromium on glucose tolerance. Metabolism 1966;15(6):510-520. View abstract.
Granchi, D., Verri, E., Ciapetti, G., Savarino, L., Cenni, E., Gori, A., and Pizzoferrato, A. Effects of chromium extract on cytokine release by mononuclear cells. Biomaterials 1998;19(1-3):283-291. View abstract.
Hambidge, K. M., Franklin, M. L., and Jacobs, M. A. Changes in hair chromium concentrations with increasing distances from hair roots. Am J Clin Nutr. 1972;25(4):380-383. View abstract.
Hambidge, K. M., Franklin, M. L., and Jacobs, M. A. Hair chromium concentration: effects of sample washing and external environment. Am J Clin Nutr. 1972;25(4):384-389. View abstract.
Hambidge, K. M., Rodgerson, D. O., and O'Brien, D. Concentration of chromium in the hair of normal children and children with juvenile diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 1968;17(8):517-519. View abstract.
Hannu, T., Piipari, R., Kasurinen, H., Keskinen, H., Tuppurainen, M., and Tuomi, T. Occupational asthma due to manual metal-arc welding of special stainless steels. Eur.Respir.J 2005;26(4):736-739. View abstract.
Hasten, D. L., Rome, E. P., Franks, B. D., and Hegsted, M. Effects of chromium picolinate on beginning weight training students. Int.J.Sport Nutr. 1992;2(4):343-350. View abstract.
Hermann J, Arquitt A, and Stoecker B. Effects of chromium supplementation on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, and glucose in elderly subjects. Nutrition Research 1994;14(5):671-674.
Hisatomi, K., Ishii, H., Hashiguchi, K., Seki, M., Ide, M., Sugiyama, K., Ishimoto, H., Nakayama, S., Mukae, H., and Kohno, S. Interstitial pneumonia caused by inhalation of fumes of nickel and chrome. Respirology. 2006;11(6):814-817. View abstract.
Hockney, R. A., Montgomery, P., Williams, C., Geddes, J. R., and Cowen, P. J. Lack of effect of chromium supplementation on mental state and body weight in people with schizophrenia. J Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2006;26(5):544-545. View abstract.
Huszonek, J. Over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150(10):1560-1561. View abstract.
Iqbal, N., Cardillo, S., Volger, S., Bloedon, L. T., Anderson, R. A., Boston, R., and Szapary, P. O. Chromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adults. Metab Syndr.Relat Disord. 2009;7(2):143-150. View abstract.
Jain, S. K., Kahlon, G., Morehead, L., Dhawan, R., Lieblong, B., Stapleton, T., Caldito, G., Hoeldtke, R., Levine, S. N., and Bass, P. F., III. Effect of chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation on circulating levels of insulin, TNF-alpha, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic subjects: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2012;56(8):1333-1341. View abstract.
Jeejeebhoy, K. N., Chu, R. C., Marliss, E. B., Greenberg, G. R., and Bruce-Robertson, A. Chromium deficiency, glucose intolerance, and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation, in a patient receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30(4):531-538. View abstract.
Joseph, L. J., Farrell, P. A., Davey, S. L., Evans, W. J., and Campbell, W. W. Effect of resistance training with or without chromium picolinate supplementation on glucose metabolism in older men and women. Metabolism 1999;48(5):546-553. View abstract.
Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, and Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Exp Med 1999;12(2):91-97.
Jovanovic-Peterson L, Gutierrez M, and Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for gestational diabetic women (GDM) improves glucose tolerance and decreases hyperinsulinemia [abstract]. Diabetes 1996;45(Suppl 2):337A.
Kaats GR, Blum K, Fisher JA, and et al. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Current Therapeutic Research 1996;57(10):747-756.
Kaats GR, Blum K, Pullin D, and et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Current Therapeutic Research 1998;59(6):379-388.
Kaats GR. The short term therapeutic efficacy of treating obesity with a plan of improved nutrition and moderate calorie restriction. Curr Ther Res 1992;51:261-274.
Kato, I., Vogelman, J. H., Dilman, V., Karkoszka, J., Frenkel, K., Durr, N. P., Orentreich, N., and Toniolo, P. Effect of supplementation with chromium picolinate on antibody titers to 5-hydroxymethyl uracil. Eur.J Epidemiol. 1998;14(6):621-626. View abstract.
Kelly GS. Sports nutrition: A review of selected nutritional supplements for bodybuilders and strength athletes. Alt Med Rev 1997;2(3):184-201.
Kelly, G. S. Insulin resistance: lifestyle and nutritional interventions. Altern.Med Rev 2000;5(2):109-132. View abstract.
Keszthelyi, Z., Past, T., Koltai, K., Szabo, L., and Mozsik, G. [Chromium (III)-ion enhances the utilization of glucose in type-2 diabetes mellitus]. Orv.Hetil. 10-19-2003;144(42):2073-2076. View abstract.
Kim, C. W., Kim, B. T., Park, K. H., Kim, K. M., Lee, D. J., Yang, S. W., and Joo, N. S. Effects of short-term chromium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and body composition in overweight children: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2011;22(11):1030-1034. View abstract.
Kleefstra, N., Houweling, S. T., Bakker, S. J., Verhoeven, S., Gans, R. O., Meyboom-de Jong, B., and Bilo, H. J. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2007;30(5):1092-1096. View abstract.
Kozlovsky, A. S., Moser, P. B., Reiser, S., and Anderson, R. A. Effects of diets high in simple sugars on urinary chromium losses. Metabolism 1986;35(6):515-518. View abstract.
Krikorian, R., Eliassen, J. C., Boespflug, E. L., Nash, T. A., and Shidler, M. D. Improved cognitive-cerebral function in older adults with chromium supplementation. Nutr.Neurosci. 2010;13(3):116-122. View abstract.
Krol, E., Krejpcio, Z., Byks, H., Bogdanski, P., and Pupek-Musialik, D. Effects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2011;143(2):726-737. View abstract.
Lai, M. H. Antioxidant effects and insulin resistance improvement of chromium combined with vitamin C and e supplementation for type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Biochem.Nutr 2008;43(3):191-198. View abstract.
Lane B. Diet and the glaucomas [abstract]. J Am Coll Nutr. 1991;10:536.
Lees, P. S. Chromium and disease: review of epidemiologic studies with particular reference to etiologic information provided by measures of exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 1991;92:93-104. View abstract.
Lefavi RG, Wilson GD, Keith RE, and et al. Lipid-lowering effect of a dietary chromium (III) - nicotinic acid complex in male athletes. Nutrition Research 1993;13:239-249.
Leroyer, C., Dewitte, J. D., Bassanets, A., Boutoux, M., Daniel, C., and Clavier, J. Occupational asthma due to chromium. Respiration 1998;65(5):403-405. View abstract.
Levine, R. A., Streeten, D. H., and Doisy, R. J. Effects of oral chromium supplementation on the glucose tolerance of elderly human subjects. Metabolism 1968;17(2):114-125. View abstract.
Littlefield, D. Chromium decreases blood glucose in a patient with diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94(12):1368. View abstract.
Livolsi, J. M., Adams, G. M., and Laguna, P. L. The effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletes. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2001;15(2):161-166. View abstract.
Lucidi, R. S., Thyer, A. C., Easton, C. A., Holden, A. E., Schenken, R. S., and Brzyski, R. G. Effect of chromium supplementation on insulin resistance and ovarian and menstrual cyclicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil.Steril. 2005;84(6):1755-1757. View abstract.
Lukaski, H. C. Chromium as a supplement. Annu.Rev.Nutr. 1999;19:279-302. View abstract.
Lukaski, H. C. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2 Suppl):585S-593S. View abstract.
Lukaski, H. C., Siders, W. A., and Penland, J. G. Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status. Nutrition 2007;23(3):187-195. View abstract.
Martin, W. R. and Fuller, R. E. Suspected chromium picolinate-induced rhabdomyolysis. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18(4):860-862. View abstract.
Martinez OB, MacDonald AC, Gibson RS, and et al. Dietary chromium and effect of chromium suppelmentation on glucose tolerance of elderly canadian women. Nutrition Research 1985;5:609-620.
McArdle WD and Moore BJ. Chromium shows little proof as weight loss supplement. Altern Med Alert 1998;1:9-10.
McCarty, M. F. Anabolic effects of insulin on bone suggest a role for chromium picolinate in preservation of bone density. Med Hypotheses 1995;45(3):241-246. View abstract.
McCarty, M. F. Chromium and other insulin sensitizers may enhance glucagon secretion: implications for hypoglycemia and weight control. Med Hypotheses 1996;46(2):77-80. View abstract.
McCarty, M. F. Complementary measures for promoting insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Med Hypotheses 1998;51(6):451-464. View abstract.
McCarty, M. F. Nitric oxide deficiency, leukocyte activation, and resultant ischemia are crucial to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy/neuropathy-- preventive potential of antioxidants, essential fatty acids, chromium, ginkgolides, and pentoxifylline. Med Hypotheses 1998;50(5):435-449. View abstract.
McCarty, M. F. Over-the-counter chromium and renal failure. Ann.Intern.Med 10-15-1997;127(8 Pt 1):654-655. View abstract.
McLeod, M. N. and Golden, R. N. Chromium treatment of depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2000;3(4):311-314. View abstract.
Mertz, W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr 1993;123(4):626-633. View abstract.
Mertz, W. Confirmation: chromium levels in serum, hair, and sweat decline with age. Nutr Rev. 1997;55(10):373-375. View abstract.
Morris BW. Chromium action and glucose homeostasis. J Trace Elem Exptl Med 1999;12(2):61-70.
Morris, B. W., MacNeil, S., Hardisty, C. A., Heller, S., Burgin, C., and Gray, T. A. Chromium homeostasis in patients with type II (NIDDM) diabetes. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1999;13(1-2):57-61. View abstract.
Mossop, R. T. Effects of chromium III on fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and cholesterol HDL levels in diabetics. Cent.Afr.J Med 1983;29(4):80-82. View abstract.
Nahas, R. and Moher, M. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Can Fam.Physician 2009;55(6):591-596. View abstract.
Nath R, Minocha J, Lyall V, and et al. Assessment of chromium metabolism in maturity onset and juvenile diabetes using chromium-51 and therapeutic response of chromium administration on plasma lipids, glucose tolerance and insulin levels. In: Shapcott D and Hubert J. Chromium in Nutrition and Metabolism. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press;1979.
Newman, H. A., Leighton, R. F., Lanese, R. R., and Freedland, N. A. Serum chromium and angiographically determined coronary artery disease. Clin Chem. 1978;24(4):541-544. View abstract.
Noda, S., Asano, Y., and Sato, S. Lichen planus in a patient with long-term exposure to chrome. Eur.J.Dermatol. 2011;21(3):417-418. View abstract.
O'Flaherty, E. J., Kerger, B. D., Hays, S. M., and Paustenbach, D. J. A physiologically based model for the ingestion of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by humans. Toxicol.Sci 2001;60(2):196-213. View abstract.
O'Mathuna DP. Chromium supplementation for weight loss. Alternative Medicine Alert 2001;4(4):37-48.
Offenbacher E, Miou J Moussas A Pi-Sunyer F. Chromium (Cr) intake and urinary Cr excretion in young adults. Fed Proc 1985;44(1848):8393.
Offenbacher, E. G. and Pi-Sunyer, F. X. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29(11):919-925. View abstract.
Offenbacher, E. G. and Pi-Sunyer, F. X. Chromium in human nutrition. Annu.Rev.Nutr. 1988;8:543-563. View abstract.
Offenbacher, E. G. Chromium in the elderly. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1992;32:123-131. View abstract.
Offenbacher, E. G., Rinko, C. J., and Pi-Sunyer, F. X. The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and plasma chromium in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42(3):454-461. View abstract.
Opala, T., Rzymski, P., Pischel, I., Wilczak, M., and Wozniak, J. Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula on body weight, body composition and blood chemistry in healthy, overweight subjects--a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res 8-30-2006;11(8):343-350. View abstract.
Parsons, A., Ingram, J., Inglis, J., Aveyard, P., Johnstone, E., Brown, K., Franklin, M., and Bermudez, I. A proof of concept randomised placebo controlled factorial trial to examine the efficacy of St John's wort for smoking cessation and chromium to prevent weight gain on smoking cessation. Drug Alcohol Depend. 6-1-2009;102(1-3):116-122. View abstract.
Pasman, W. J., Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., and Saris, W. H. The effectiveness of long-term supplementation of carbohydrate, chromium, fibre and caffeine on weight maintenance. Int J Obes.Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21(12):1143-1151. View abstract.
Pei, D., Hsieh, C. H., Hung, Y. J., Li, J. C., Lee, C. H., and Kuo, S. W. The influence of chromium chloride-containing milk to glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Metabolism 2006;55(7):923-927. View abstract.
Pekarek, R. S., Hauer, E. C., Rayfield, E. J., Wannemacher, R. W., and Beisel, W. R. Relationship between serum chromium concentrations and glucose utilization in normal and infected subjects. Diabetes 1975;24(4):350-353. View abstract.
Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. Complementary therapies for reducing body weight: a systematic review. Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 2005;29(9):1030-1038. View abstract.
Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2004;79(4):529-536. View abstract.
Pohl, M., Mayr, P., Mertl-Roetzer, M., Lauster, F., Haslbeck, M., Hipper, B., Steube, D., Tietjen, M., Eriksen, J., and Rahlfs, V. W. Glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a disease-specific enteral formula: stage II of a randomized, controlled multicenter trial. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2009;33(1):37-49. View abstract.
Prasad, K. N., Cole, W. C., and Kumar, B. Multiple antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(5):413-423. View abstract.
Press, R. I., Geller, J., and Evans, G. W. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects. West J Med 1990;152(1):41-45. View abstract.
Preuss, H. G., Garis, R. I., Bramble, J. D., Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Rao, C. V., and Satyanarayana, S. Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control. Int.J Clin.Pharmacol.Res. 2005;25(3):133-144. View abstract.
Preuss, H. G., Wallerstedt, D., Talpur, N., Tutuncuoglu, S. O., Echard, B., Myers, A., Bui, M., and Bagchi, D. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study. J Med 2000;31(5-6):227-246. View abstract.
Proctor, D. M., Fredrick, M. M., Scott, P. K., Paustenbach, D. J., and Finley, B. L. The prevalence of chromium allergy in the United States and its implications for setting soil cleanup: a cost-effectiveness case study. Regul.Toxicol Pharmacol 1998;28(1):27-37. View abstract.
Quarles, C. D., Jr., Brumaghim, J. L., and Marcus, R. K. Instrumental comparison of the determination of Cr(3)+ uptake by human transferrin. Metallomics. 2010;2(12):792-799. View abstract.
Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levine SR, and et al. Clinical trial of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Biol Trace Elem Res 1983;5:449-466.
Racek, J., Trefil, L., Rajdl, D., Mudrova, V., Hunter, D., and Senft, V. Influence of chromium-enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2006;109(3):215-230. View abstract.
Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, and et al. Control of steroid-induced diabetes with supplemental chromium. J Trace Elem Exper Med 1999;12(4):375-378.
Ravina A, Slezak L, Rubal A, and et al. Clinical use of the trace element chromium (III) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Exper Med 1995;8:183-190.
Rhee, Y. S., Hermann, J. R., Burnham, K., Arquitt, A. B., and Stoecker, B. J. The effects of chromium and copper supplementation on mitogen-stimulated T cell proliferation in hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 2002;127(3):463-469. View abstract.
Riales, R. and Albrink, M. J. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34(12):2670-2678. View abstract.
Romero, R. A., Salgado, O., Rodriguez-Iturbe, B., and Tahan, J. E. Blood levels of chromium in diabetic and nondiabetic hemodialysis patients. Transplant.Proc 1996;28(6):3382-3384. View abstract.
Rothacker DQ, Waitman BE. Effectiveness of a Garcinia cambogia and natural caffeine combination in weight loss - a double-blind, placebo controlled pilot study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997;21(53):1.
Saper, R. B., Eisenberg, D. M., and Phillips, R. S. Common dietary supplements for weight loss. Am.Fam.Physician 11-1-2004;70(9):1731-1738. View abstract.
Schroeder, H. A. The role of chromium in mammalian nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1968;21(3):230-244. View abstract.
Shapiro, K. and Gong, W. C. Natural products used for diabetes. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash.) 2002;42(2):217-226. View abstract.
Sharma, S., Agrawal, R. P., Choudhary, M., Jain, S., Goyal, S., and Agarwal, V. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glucose, HbA1C and lipid variables in individuals with newly onset type-2 diabetes. J.Trace Elem.Med.Biol. 2011;25(3):149-153. View abstract.
Sherman, L., Glennon, J. A., Brech, W. J., Klomberg, G. H., and Gordon, E. S. Failure of trivalent chromium to improve hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1968;17(5):439-442. View abstract.
Shumilla, J. A., Broderick, R. J., Wang, Y., and Barchowsky, A. Chromium(VI) inhibits the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor- kappaB by decreasing the interaction of p65 with cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 12-17-1999;274(51):36207-36212. View abstract.
Simonoff M, Llabador Y, Hamon C, and et al. Low plasma chromium in patients with coronary artery and heart diseases. Biological Trace Element Research 1984;6:431-439.
Sodergren, M. H., Jethwa, P., Kumar, S., Duncan, H. D., Johns, T., and Pearce, C. B. Immunonutrition in patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal surgery: a prospective double-blind randomised controlled study. Scand.J.Surg. 2010;99(3):153-161. View abstract.
Stoecker BJ. Chromium. In: Shils M and et al. Nutrition in Health and Disease. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins;1999.
Stupar, J., Vrtovec, M., Kocijancic, A., and Gantar, A. Chromium status of tannery workers in relation to metabolic disorders. J Appl.Toxicol. 1999;19(6):437-446. View abstract.
Thomas, V. L. and Gropper, S. S. Effect of chromium nicotinic acid supplementation on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1996;55(3):297-305. View abstract.
Trow, L. G., Lewis, J., Greenwood, R. H., Sampson, M. J., Self, K. A., Crews, H. M., and Fairweather-Tait, S. J. Lack of effect of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Int.J Vitam.Nutr.Res 2000;70(1):14-18. View abstract.
Unisa, S., Jagannath, P., Dhir, V., Khandelwal, C., Sarangi, L., and Roy, T. K. Population-based study to estimate prevalence and determine risk factors of gallbladder diseases in the rural Gangetic basin of North India. HPB (Oxford) 2011;13(2):117-125. View abstract.
Urberg, M., Benyi, J., and John, R. Hypocholesterolemic effects of nicotinic acid and chromium supplementation. J Fam.Pract. 1988;27(6):603-606. View abstract.
Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, and et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1983;38:404-410.
Uusitupa MI, Mykkänen L, Siitonen O, and et al. Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. British Journal of Nutrition 1992;68:209-216.
Via, M., Scurlock, C., Raikhelkar, J., Di, Luozzo G., and Mechanick, J. I. Chromium infusion reverses extreme insulin resistance in a cardiothoracic ICU patient. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2008;23(3):325-328. View abstract.
Vinson JA and Bose P. The effect of a high chromium yeast on the blood glucose control and blood lipids of normal and diabetic human subjects. Nutrition Reports International 1984;30(4):911-918.
Vrtovec, M., Vrtovec, B., Briski, A., Kocijancic, A., Anderson, R. A., and Radovancevic, B. Chromium supplementation shortens QTc interval duration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am.Heart J. 2005;149(4):632-636. View abstract.
Walker, L. S., Bemben, M. G., Bemben, D. A., and Knehans, A. W. Chromium picolinate effects on body composition and muscular performance in wrestlers. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1998;30(12):1730-1737. View abstract.
Wang MW, Fox EA, Stoecker BJ, and et al. Serum cholesterol of adults supplemented with brewer's yeast or chromium chloride. Nutrition Research 1989;9:989-998.
Wang, Z. Q., Qin, J., Martin, J., Zhang, X. H., Sereda, O., Anderson, R. A., Pinsonat, P., and Cefalu, W. T. Phenotype of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus may determine clinical response to chromium supplementation. Metabolism 2007;56(12):1652-1655. View abstract.
Williams, M. H. Nutritional ergogenics in athletics. J Sports Sci 1995;13 Spec No:S63-S74. View abstract.
Wilson BE and Gondy A. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Res.Clin.Pract. 1995;28(3):179-184. View abstract.
Wrobel K, Garay-Sevilla ME, Malacara JM, and et al. Effect of chromium on glucose tolerance, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in occupational exposure to trivalent species in type 2 diabetic patients and in control subjects. Trace Elements & Electrolytes 1999;16(4):199-205.
Xiang, J., Sun, Z., and Huan, J. N. Intensive chromic acid burns and acute chromium poisoning with acute renal failure. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 7-5-2011;124(13):2071-2073. View abstract.
Young P, Turiansky G, Bonner M, and et al. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by chromium picolinate. J.Am Acad.Dermatol. 1999;41(5 Pt 2):820-823. View abstract.
Zhang, L., Dong, T., Zhang, H., Jiang, Y., and Yang, S. The relationship between chromium, inflammation and insulin resistance. Chinese Journal of Microecology 2010;22(8):705.
Zook, J. E., Wurtz, D. L., Cummings, J. E., and Cardenes, H. R. Intra-articular chromic phosphate ((3)(2)P) in the treatment of diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis. Brachytherapy. 2011;10(3):190-194. View abstract.
Abraham AS, Brooks BA, Eylath U. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in patients with and without non-insulin dependent diabetes. Metabolism 1992;41:768-71. View abstract.
Adams, J. B., Baral, M., Geis, E., Mitchell, J., Ingram, J., Hensley, A., Zappia, I., Newmark, S., Gehn, E., Rubin, R. A., Mitchell, K., Bradstreet, J., and El-Dahr, J. Safety and efficacy of oral DMSA therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders: Part A--medical results. BMC.Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;9:16. View abstract.
Albarracin C, Fuqua B, Evans JL, Goldfine ID. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2008;24:41-51. View abstract.
Althius MD, Jordon NE, Ludington EA, Wittes JT. Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:148-55. View abstract.
Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997;46:1786-91. View abstract.
Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Effects of supplemental chromium on patients with symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia. Metabolism 1987;36:351-5. View abstract.
Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:548-55. View abstract.
Attenburrow MJ, Odontiadis J, Murray BJ, et al. Chromium treatment decreases the sensitivity of 5-HT2A receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002;159:432-6. View abstract.
Berardi R, Pellei C, Valeri G, Pistelli M, Onofri A, Morgese F, Caramanti M, Mirza RM, Santoni M, De Lisa M, Savini A, Ballatore Z, Giuseppetti GM, Cascinu S. Chromium exposure and germinal embryonal carcinoma: first two cases and review of the literature. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2015;78(1):1-6. View abstract.
Blasiak J, Kowalik J. A comparison of the in vitro genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium. Mutat Res 2000;469:135-45. View abstract.
Brownley KA, Von Holle A, Hamer RM, La Via M, Bulik CM. A double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) study. J Psychosom Res 2013;75(1):36-42. View abstract.
Campbell WW, Beard JL, Joseph LJ, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation and resistive training by older men: effects on iron status and hematologic indexes. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:944-9. View abstract.
Carlsen SM, Folling I, Grill V, et al. Metformin increases total homocysteine levels in non-diabetic male patients with coronary heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1997;57:521-7. View abstract.
Cefalu WT, Hu FB. Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2741-51.
Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Gauthier I, et al. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:428-31. View abstract.
Cheng HH, Lai MH, Hou WC, Huang CL. Antioxidant effects of chromium supplementation with type 2 diabetes mellitus and euglycemic subjects. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:1385-9. View abstract.
Davidson JR, Abraham K, Connor KM, McLeod MN. Effectiveness of chromium in atypical depression: a placebo-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry 2003;53:261-4.. View abstract.
Davies S, Howard JM, Hunnisett A, et al. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51,665 hair, sweat, and serum samples from 40,872 patients - implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Metabolism 1997;46:469-73. View abstract.
Davis ML, Seaborn CD, and Stoecker BJ. Effects of over-the-counter drugs on chromium retention and urinary excretion in rats. Nutrition Research 1995;15(2):201-210.
De Marchi S, Cecchin E, De Marchi SU. Systemic allergic dermatitis resulting from oral administration of chromium with a food supplement. Contact Dermatitis 2014;70(2):123-5. View abstract.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Prototype monograph on chromium picolinate. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2005. Available at: http://www.iom.edu/CMS/3788/19554.aspx.
Food Standards Agency. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. Available at: http://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/vitmin2003.pdf.
Fowler JF Jr. Systemic contact dermatitis caused by oral chromium picolinate. Cutis 2000;65:116. View abstract.
Fox GN, Sabovic Z. Chromium picolinate supplementation for diabetes mellitus. J Fam Pract 1998;46:83-6. View abstract.
Frauchiger MT, Wenk C, Colombani PC. Effects of acute chromium supplementation on postprandial metabolism in healthy young men. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:351-7. View abstract.
Freund H, Atamian S, Fischer JE. Chromium deficiency during total parenteral nutrition. JAMA 1979;241:496-8. View abstract.
Geohas J, Daly A, Juturu V, et al. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Mar;333:145-53. View abstract.
Grant KE, Chandler RM, Castle AL, Ivy JL. Chromium and exercise training: effect on obese women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:992-8. View abstract.
Guallar E, Jimenez FJ, van 't Veer P, et al. Low toenail chromium concentration and increased risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162:157-64. View abstract.
Gunton JE, Cheung NW, Hitchman R, et al. Chromium supplementation does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or lipid profile: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of supplementation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 2005;28:712-3. View abstract.
Hahn CJ, Evans GW. Absorption of trace metals in the zinc-deficient rat. Am J Physiol 1975;228:1020-3. View abstract.
Hallmark MA, Reynolds TH, DeSouza CA, et al. Effects of chromium and resistive training on muscle strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:139-44. View abstract.
Hedberg YS, Gumulka M, Lind ML, Matura M, Lidén C. Severe occupational chromium allergy despite cement legislation. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;70(5):321-3. View abstract.
Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280:1596-600. View abstract.
Hoeger WW, Harris C, Long EM, Hopkins DR. Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition. Adv Ther 1998;15:305-14. View abstract.
Huang, J., Frohlich, J., and Ignaszewski, A. P. The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile. Can J Cardiol 2011;27(4):488-505. View abstract.
John-Kalarickal J, Pearlman G, Carlson HE. New medications which decrease levothyroxine absorption. Thyroid 2007;17:763-5. View abstract.
Kaats GR, Blum K, Fisher JA, Adelman JA. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:747-56.
Kaats GR, Blum K, Pullin D, et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:379-88.
Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Jansman FG, et al. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in an obese Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2006;29:521-5. View abstract.
Kockler DR, McCarthy MW, Lawson CL. Seizure activity and unresponsiveness after hydroxycut ingestion. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21:647-51.. View abstract.
Lanca S, Alves A, Vieira AI, et al. Chromium-induced toxic hepatitis. Eur J Intern Med 2002;13:518-20. View abstract.
Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449-52. View abstract.
Liu VJ, Abernathy RP. Chromium and insulin in young subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:661-7. View abstract.
Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, Milne DB. Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status of men. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:954-65. View abstract.
Lydic ML, McNurlan M, Bembo S, et al. Chromium picolinate improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2006;86:243-6. View abstract.
Maher TJ. Chromium and other minerals in diabetes mellitus. US Pharm 1999;24:66-76.
Martin J, Wang ZQ, Zhang XH, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1826-32. View abstract.
Martino F, Puddu PE, Pannarale G, Colantoni C, Martino E, Niglio T, Zanoni C, Barillà F. Low dose chromium-polynicotinate or policosanol is effective in hypercholesterolemic children only in combination with glucomannan. Atherosclerosis. 2013;228(1):198-202. View abstract.
McCarty MF. Chromium supplementation and iron metabolism [letter]. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:890-2. View abstract.
McLeod MN, Gaynes BN, Golden RN. Chromium potentiation of antidepressant pharmacotherapy for dysthymic disorder in 5 patients. J Clin Psych 1999;60:237-40. View abstract.
Mertz W. Interaction of chromium with insulin: a progress report. Nutr Rev 1998;56:174-7. View abstract.
Minerals for diabetes. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter 2000;16(2):160212.
Mohamedshah FY, Moser-Veillon PB, Yamini S, et al. Distribution of a stable isotope of chromium (53Cr) in serum, urine, and breast milk in lactating women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:1250-5. View abstract.
Morris BW, Kemp GJ, Hardisty CA. Plasma chromium and chromium excretion in diabetes. Clin Chem 1985;31:334-5. View abstract.
Mouser JF, Hak EB, Helms RA, et al. Chromium and zinc concentrations in pediatric patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:1950-6. View abstract.
Mulyani I, Levina A, Lay PA. Biomimetic oxidation of chromium(III): does the antidiabetic activity of chromium(III) involve carcinogenic chromium(VI)? Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2004;43:4504-7. View abstract.
Pittler MH, Stevinson C, Ernst E. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003;27:522-9. View abstract.
PremesisRx. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 1999:15(12);151206.
Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Enforcement Discretion -Chromium Picolinate and Insulin Resistance (Docket No. 2004Q-0144).CFSAN/Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements August 25, 2005. Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/qhccr.html.
Rabinovitz H, Friedensohn A, Leibovitz A, et al. Effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus elderly patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2004;74:178-82. View abstract.
Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, Davidson MB. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 1983;6:319-27. View abstract.
Rajpathak S, Rimm EB, Li T, et al. Lower toenail chromium in men with diabetes and cardiovascular disease compared with healthy men. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2211-6. View abstract.
Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitus with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med 1999;16:164-7. View abstract.
Ravina, A. and Slezack, L. [Chromium in the treatment of clinical diabetes mellitus]. Harefuah 1993;125(5-6):142-145, 191. View abstract.
Roeback JR Jr, Hla KM, Chambless LE, Fletcher RH. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:917-24. View abstract.
Rubin MA, Miller JP, Ryan AS, et al. Acute and chronic resistive exercise increase urinary chromium excretion in men as measured with an enriched chromium stable isotope. J Nutr 1998;128:73-78. View abstract.
Saner G, Yuzbasiyan V, Neyzi O, et al. Alterations of chromium metabolism and effect of chromium supplementation in Turner's syndrome patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:574-8. View abstract.
Seaborn CD and Stoecker BJ. Effects of antacid or ascorbic acid on tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of 51chromium. Nutrition Research 1990;10:1401-1407.
Singer GM, Geohas J. The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial. Diabetes Technol Ther 2006;8:636-43. View abstract.
Speetjens JK, Collins RA, Vincent JB, Woski SA. The nutritional supplement chromium(III) tris(picolinate) cleaves DNA. Chem Res Toxicol 1999;12:483-7. View abstract.
Stearns DM, Belbruno JJ, Wetterhahn KE. A prediction of chromium (III) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary supplements. FASEB J 1995;9:1650-7. View abstract.
Stevens T, Qadri A, Zein NN. Two patients with acute liver injury associated with use of the herbal weight-loss supplement hydroxycut. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:477-8. View abstract.
Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, Yuwanakorn A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of chromium supplementation in diabetes. J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39(3):292-306. View abstract.
Thyssen JP, Jellesen MS, Møller P, Menné T, Johansen JD. Allergic chromium dermatitis from wearing 'chromium-free' footwear. Contact Dermatitis 2014;70(3):185-7. View abstract.
Trent LK, Thieding-Cancel D. Effects of chromium picolinate on body composition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1995;35:273-80. View abstract.
Urberg M, Zemel MB. Evidence for synergism between chromium and nicotinic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism 1987;36:896-9. View abstract.
Urberg M, Zemel MB. Evidence for synergism between chromium and nicotinic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism 1987;36:896-9. View abstract.
Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:404-10. View abstract.
Uusitupa MI, Mykkanen L, Siitonen O, et al. Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. Br J Nutr 1992;68:209-16. View abstract.
Vincent JB. The biochemistry of chromium. J Nutr 2000;130:715-8. View abstract.
Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, Lesser II. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:293-306. View abstract.
Wang ZQ, Zhang XH, Baldor LC, et al. Chromium picolinate enhances insulin sensitivity in an animal model for the metabolic syndrome: the obese, insulin resistant JCR:LA-corpulent rat. Am Diabetes Assn's 60th Sci Sessions & Expo, San Antonio, TX 2000;Jun 9-13: abstract 291.
Wani S, Weskamp C, Marple J, Spry L. Acute tubular necrosis associated with chromium picolinate-containing dietary supplement. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:563-6. View abstract.
Wasser WG, Feldman NS, D'Agati VD. Chronic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. [letter]. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:410. View abstract.
Welling R, Beaumont JJ, Petersen SJ, Alexeeff GV, Steinmaus C. Chromium VI and stomach cancer: a meta-analysis of the current epidemiological evidence. Occup Environ Med 2015;72(2):151-9. View abstract.
Wise A. Chromium supplementation and diabetes. JAMA 1978;240:2045-6. View abstract.
Yazaki Y, Faridi Z, Ma Y, et al. A pilot study of chromium picolinate for weight loss. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:291-9. View abstract.