Coenzyme Q-10

Other Name(s):

Co Q10, Co Q-10, Coenzima Q-10, Co-Enzyme 10, Coenzyme Q 10, Coenzyme Q10, Co-Enzyme Q10, Co-Enzyme Q-10, Co-Q 10, CoQ10, Co-Q10, CoQ-10, Ubidcarenone, Ubidécarénone, Ubiquinone-10.


Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10) is a vitamin-like substance found throughout the body, but especially in the heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas. It is eaten in small amounts in meats and seafood. Coenzyme Q-10 can also be made in a laboratory. It is used as medicine.

Many people use coenzyme Q-10 for treating heart and blood vessel conditions such as congestive heart failure (CHF), chest pain (angina), high blood pressure, and heart problems linked to certain cancer drugs. It is also used for diabetes, gum disease (both taken by mouth and applied directly to the gums), breast cancer, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, muscular dystrophy, increasing exercise tolerance, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and Lyme disease. Some people think coenzyme Q-10 will treat hair loss related to taking warfarin (Coumadin), a medication used to slow blood clotting.

Some people also think coenzyme Q-10 might help increase energy. This is because coenzyme Q-10 has a role in producing ATP, a molecule in body cells that functions like a rechargeable battery in the transfer of energy. Coenzyme Q-10 been tried for treating inherited or acquired disorders that limit energy production in the cells of the body (mitochondrial disorders), and for improving exercise performance.

Some people have also used coenzyme Q-10 for strengthening the immune systems of people with HIV/AIDS, male infertility, migraine headache, and counteracting muscle pain sometimes caused by a group of cholesterol-lowering medications called “statins.”

Coenzyme Q-10 has even been tried for increasing life span. This idea got started because coenzyme Q-10 levels are highest in the first 20 years of life. By age 80, coenzyme-Q10 levels can be lower than they were at birth. Some people thought that restoring high levels of coenzyme-Q10 late in life might cause people to live longer. The idea works in bacteria, but not in lab rats. More research is needed to see if this works in people.

It's not only time that uses up the body's store of coenzyme Q-10. Smoking does, too.

Coenzyme Q-10 was first identified in 1957. The “Q-10” refers to the chemical make-up of the substance. These days coenzyme Q-10 is used by millions of people in Japan for heart disease, especially congestive heart failure. Coenzyme Q-10 is also used extensively in Europe and Russia. Most of the coenzyme Q-10 used in the US and Canada is supplied by Japanese companies. Coenzyme Q-10 is manufactured by fermenting beets and sugar cane with special strains of yeast.

How does it work?

Coenzyme Q-10 is an important vitamin-like substance required for the proper function of many organs and chemical reactions in the body. It helps provide energy to cells. Coenzyme Q-10 also seems to have antioxidant activity. People with certain diseases, such as congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, periodontal disease, Parkinson's disease, certain muscular diseases, and AIDS, might have lower levels of coenzyme Q-10.


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Uses & Effectiveness

Likely Effective for...

  • Coenzyme Q-10 deficiency. Taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth seems to improve symptoms of coenzyme Q-10 deficiency. This is a very rare condition. The symptoms include weakness, fatigue, and seizures.
  • Inherited or acquired disorders that limit energy production in the cells of the body (mitochondrial disorders). Taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth seems to reduce symptoms of mitochondrial disorders. However, improvement in symptoms is slow. Some people have to take coenzyme Q-10 for six months to get the most benefit.

Possibly Effective for...

  • Age-related vision loss (age-related macular degeneration). Taking a specific product containing coenzyme Q-10, acetyl-L-carnitine, and omega-3 fatty acids (Phototrop) by mouth seems to improve vision in people with age-related vision loss.
  • Congestive heart failure (CHF). Some research suggests that heart failure might be linked with low coenzyme Q-10 levels. Although most evidence shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 alone does not help treat heart failure, there is some evidence that it might be helpful when taken in combination with other heart failure medications and treatments.
  • Nerve damage caused by diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 improves nerve damage and nerve pain in people with nerve damage caused by diabetes.
  • HIV/AIDS. Taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth seems to improve immune function in people with HIV/AIDS.
  • An inherited neurological disorder called Huntington's disease. Ubiquinol, an altered form of coenzyme Q-10, has been granted “Orphan Drug Status” by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This gives the maker of Ubiquinol some financial incentives to study its effectiveness for Huntington's, a condition that is so rare (affecting less than 200,000 individuals) that pharmaceutical companies might not otherwise invest in developing a drug for it. However, taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth in doses of 600 mg daily or less does not seem to be effective for slowing the progression of Huntington's disease.
  • High blood pressure. The majority of research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 by itself or along with other medications for treating high blood pressure seems to help lower blood pressure. However, one small study suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth may not lower blood pressure in people that also have a condition called metabolic syndrome.
  • Blood vessel complications caused by heart bypass surgery. Reduced blood supply during heart or blood vessel surgery can deprive tissue of oxygen. When blood supply returns to this tissue, the tissue can become damaged. There is some evidence that taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth for a week before heart bypass surgery or blood vessel surgery might help to reduce tissue damage. However, not all research agrees with this finding.
  • A specific type of high blood pressure. Taking coenzyme Q-10 daily appears to lower systolic blood pressure (the top number) in some people with high systolic blood pressure but normal diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number).
  • Migraine headache. Taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth seems to help prevent migraine headaches. Studies show it can decrease the frequency of headaches by about 30% and the number of days with headache-related nausea by about 45% in adults. Taking coenzyme Q-10 also appears to reduce migraine frequency in children who have low levels of coenzyme Q-10. It can take up to 3 months for significant benefit. However, coenzyme Q-10 does not seem to be effective in treating migraines once they have developed.
  • An inherited muscle disorder called muscular dystrophy. Taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth seems to improve physical performance in some people with muscular dystrophy
  • Heart attack. When started within 72 hours of a heart attack and taken for one year, coenzyme Q-10 appears to lower the risk of heart-related events, including another heart attack.
  • Parkinson's disease. Some research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 supplements might slow decline in people with early Parkinson's disease. However, taking a coenzyme Q-10 does not seem to improve symptoms in people with mid-stage Parkinson's disease.
  • Peyronie's disease (painful erection in men). Research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 improves erectile function in men with painful erections.

Possibly Ineffective for...

  • Alzheimer's disease. Taking coenzyme Q-10 does not seem to improve mental function in people with Alzheimer's disease.
  • Neurodegenerative disease called ALS or Lou Gehrid's disease. Research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 does not slow the progression of ALS.
  • Cocaine dependence. Taking a combination of coenzyme Q-10 and L-carnitine does not reduce cocaine use.
  • High cholesterol. Some research shows that taking coyenzme Q-10 does not reduce total cholesterol, triglycerides, or low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol, or increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good”) cholesterol. Other research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth alone or together with carnitine does not improve cholesterol levels. However, one study in people who can not take statin drugs shows that taking a combination of coenzyme Q-10, berberine, policosanol, red yeast rice, folic acid, and astaxanthin reduces cholesterol levels.
  • Symptoms affecting polio survivors (post-polio syndrome). Research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 does not improve muscle strength or muscle function in people with post-polio syndrome.

Likely Ineffective for...

  • Athletic performance. Taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth does not improve althetic performance in athletes or non-athletes.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Chest pain (angina). Some early research suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth might improve exercise tolerance in patients with angina.
  • Asthma. Some early research suggests that taking a combination of coenzyme Q-10, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), and vitamin C in addition to conventional asthma treatment reduces the dosage of drugs needed by people with mild-to-moderate asthma.
  • Breast cancer. Some research in Chinese women suggests that having low blood levels of coenzyme Q-10 is linked to an increased risk of breat cancer. There is preliminary evidence that taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth might be helpful in advanced breast cancer when used along with surgery and conventional treatment plus other antioxidants and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
  • Cancer. Research suggests that low coenzyme Q-10 levels are associated with an increased risk of skin cancer. Also, early research suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 along with other antioxidants increases survival time by 40% in patients with terminal cancer.
  • Heart toxicity caused by chemotherapy drugs. Some research suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth may protect the heart in children and adults receiving the chemotherapy drug anthracycline. However, other research suggests that administering coenzyme Q-10 intravenously (by IV) does not provide this benefit.
  • Lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Early research suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 improves lung function and exercise tolerance in people with COPD.
  • Cyclic vomiting syndrome. Some early research suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 might work as well as prescription medications used to treat cyclic vomiting syndrome.
  • Diabetes. Research about the effectiveness of coenzyme Q-10 for diabetes is conflicting. Some research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 might lower blood sugar levels. However, other research has found no benefit.
  • Weakend and enlarged heart (dilated cardiomyopathy). Early evidence suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 improves heart function in children with dilated cardiomyopathy.
  • Dry mouth. Early research suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 (ubiquinol) improves dry mouth.
  • Eye surgery. Research suggests that administering an eye solution containing coenzyme Q-10 and vitamin E increases the speed of nerve regeneration after cataract eye surgery
  • Fibromyalgia. Some early research suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 along with ginkgo might increase feelings of wellness and overall health, as well as reduce pain in people with fibromyalgia.
  • Uncoordinated movement due to brain damage (cerebellar ataxia). Early research suggests that coenzyme Q-10 improves muscle coordination and movement in people with cerebellar ataxia.
  • Rare inherited disease that causes nerve damage (Friedreich's ataxia). Early research suggests that taking vitamin E together with coenzyme Q-10 improves coordination, posture, and movement in people with Friedreich's ataxia.
  • Hearing loss. Research suggests that taking a specific coenzyme Q-10 product (Q-TER) by mouth improves hearing in people with age-related hearing loss. However, combining coenzyme Q-10 with conventional steroid treatments does not improve hearing more than steroid treatment alone.
  • Hepatitis C. Research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 does not improve liver function in people with hepatitis C who are not responding to conventional treatment.
  • A heart condition called hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth seems to decrease the thickness of the heart wall and decrease symptoms of shortness of breath and fatigue in people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  • Rare genetic disorder called Prader-Willi syndrome. Early research suggests that administering coenzyme Q-10 improves development in children with Prader-Labhart-Willi syndrome. However, it is not clear if these improvements are due to the coenzyme Q-10 or an age-related phenomenon.
  • Male infertility. There is some early evidence that coenzyme Q-10 treatment can improve the movement and density of sperm in men with certain types of infertility. However, other research shows that it does not have a beneficial effect on sperm movement.
  • Inherited diabetes and deafness. There is some early evidence that taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth might prevent the progression of a rare form of diabetes that is maternally inherited.
  • Gum disease. Applying coenzyme Q-10 to the gums is not effective for treating gum disease. However, there is some early evidence that taking coenzyme Q-10 by mouth might be helpful in treating gum disease.
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia). Pre-eclampsia is a condition that some women develop during pregnancy. Some research shows that women who are at risk have a lower chance of developing the condition if they take coenzyme Q-10 from week 20 of pregnancy until the baby is delivered
  • Prostate cancer. Research shows that taking a combination of vitamin E, selenium, vitamin C, and coenzyme Q-10 does not improve prostate cancer.
  • Kidney failure. Some early research suggests that taking coenzyme Q-10 improves kidney function in people with end-stage kidney disease. However, other research shows that taking coenzyme Q-10 does not improve kidney function.
  • A muscle condition called “statin-induced myopathy.” Statins, a class of drugs used to lower cholesterol, can sometimes cause muscle pain. There is some evidence that taking coenzyme Q-10 might reduce this pain. However, not all evidence has been positive.
  • Hair loss related to use of the warfarin. There is some early evidence that taking coenzyme Q-10 might be helpful for preventing hair loss caused by the blood-thinning drug, warfarin.
  • Wrinkled skin. Early evidence suggests that applying a coenzyme Q-10 cream to the skin improves wrinkled skin.
  • Fatigue.
  • Lyme disease.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate coenzyme Q-10 for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Coenzyme Q-10 is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth or when applied directly to the gums. While most people tolerate coenzyme Q-10 well, it can cause some mild side effects including stomach upset, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It can cause allergic skin rashes in some people. It also might lower blood pressure, so check your blood pressure carefully if you have very low blood pressure. Dividing the total daily dose by taking smaller amounts two or three times a day instead of a large amount all at once can help reduce side effects.

Coenzyme Q-10 is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when taken by mouth. However, coenzyme Q-10 should not be used in children without medical supervision.


Heart Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Causes See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Coenzyme Q-10 is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately during preganancy. Coenzyme Q-10 has been used safely twice daily starting at 20 weeks until delivery. Not enough is known about the use of coenzyme Q-10 during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Chemotherapy: There is some concern that coenzyme Q-10 might lower the effectiveness of some chemotherapy drugs. People undergoing chemotherapy with certain drugs should use coenzyme Q-10 with caution.

High blood pressure or low blood pressure: Coenzyme Q-10 might lower blood pressure. It can increase the effects of medications used to lower blood pressure. Discuss your use of coenzyme Q-10 with your healthcare provider if you have blood pressure problems.

Smoking: Cigarette smoking depletes the amount of coenzyme Q-10 stored by the body.

Surgery: Coenzyme Q-10 might interfere with blood pressure control during and after surgery. Stop using coenzyme Q-10 at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Medications for cancer (Chemotherapy)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Coenzyme Q-10 is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. But it is too soon to know if the interaction occurs.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Coenzyme Q-10 seems to decrease blood pressure. Taking coenzyme Q-10 along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting while coenzyme Q-10 might increase blood clotting. By helping the blood clot, coenzyme Q-10 might decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin) and increase the risk of dangerous clots. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.


In the U.S., 1 in every 4 deaths is caused by heart disease. See Answer


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For known coenzyme Q-10 deficiency: 150 mg daily.
  • For mitochondrial disorders (mitochondrial encephalomyopathies): 150-160 mg, or 2 mg/kg/day. In some cases, doses may be gradually increased to 3000 mg per day.
  • For heart failure in adults: 100 mg per day divided into 2 or 3 doses.
  • For reducing the risk of future cardiac events in patients with recent myocardial infarction: 120 mg daily in 2 divided doses.
  • For high blood pressure: 120-200 mg per day divided into 2 doses.
  • For isolated systolic hypertension: 60 mg twice daily.
  • For preventing migraine headache: 100 mg three times daily. A dose of 1-3 mg/kg has also been used in pediatric and adolescent patients.
  • For Parkinson's disease: 300 mg, 600 mg, 1200 mg, and 2400 mg per day in 3-4 divided doses.
  • For HIV/AIDS: 200 mg per day.
  • For infertility in men: 200-300 mg per day.
  • For muscular dystrophy: 100 mg per day.
  • For pre-eclampsia: 100 mg twice daily starting at week 20 of pregnancy until delivery.
Dividing the total daily dose by taking smaller amounts two or three times a day instead of a large amount all at once can help reduce side effects.

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Kaufmann, P., Thompson, J. L., Levy, G., Buchsbaum, R., Shefner, J., Krivickas, L. S., Katz, J., Rollins, Y., Barohn, R. J., Jackson, C. E., Tiryaki, E., Lomen-Hoerth, C., Armon, C., Tandan, R., Rudnicki, S. A., Rezania, K., Sufit, R., Pestronk, A., Novella, S. P., Heiman-Patterson, T., Kasarskis, E. J., Pioro, E. P., Montes, J., Arbing, R., Vecchio, D., Barsdorf, A., Mitsumoto, H., and Levin, B. Phase II trial of CoQ10 for ALS finds insufficient evidence to justify phase III. Ann Neurol. 2009;66(2):235-244. View abstract.

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Klopstock, T., Metz, G., Yu-Wai-Man, P., Buchner, B., Gallenmuller, C., Bailie, M., Nwali, N., Griffiths, P. G., von, Livonius B., Reznicek, L., Rouleau, J., Coppard, N., Meier, T., and Chinnery, P. F. Persistence of the treatment effect of idebenone in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Brain 2013;136(Pt 2):e230. View abstract.

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Lee, B. J., Huang, Y. C., Chen, S. J., and Lin, P. T. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and homocysteine) in patients with coronary artery disease. Nutrition 2012;28(7-8):767-772. View abstract.

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Lekli, I., Das, S., Das, S., Mukherjee, S., Bak, I., Juhasz, B., Bagchi, D., Trimurtulu, G., Krishnaraju, A. V., Sengupta, K., Tosaki, A., and Das, D. K. Coenzyme Q9 provides cardioprotection after converting into coenzyme Q10. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-9-2008;56(13):5331-5337. View abstract.

Lekoubou, A., Kouame-Assouan, A. E., Cho, T. H., Luaute, J., Nighoghossian, N., and Derex, L. Effect of long-term oral treatment with L-arginine and idebenone on the prevention of stroke-like episodes in an adult MELAS patient. Rev.Neurol.(Paris) 2011;167(11):852-855. View abstract.

Lenaz, G. and Genova, M. L. Structural and functional organization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain: a dynamic super-assembly. Int.J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41(10):1750-1772. View abstract.

Letsas, K. P., Efremidis, M., Pappas, L. K., Gavrielatos, G., Sideris, A., and Charitos, C. Pathophysiology and management of syncope in Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Am Heart Hosp.J 2006;4(4):301-302. View abstract.

Levy, G., Kaufmann, P., Buchsbaum, R., Montes, J., Barsdorf, A., Arbing, R., Battista, V., Zhou, X., Mitsumoto, H., Levin, B., and Thompson, J. L. A two-stage design for a phase II clinical trial of coenzyme Q10 in ALS. Neurology 3-14-2006;66(5):660-663. View abstract.

LeWitt, P. A. and Taylor, D. C. Protection against Parkinson's disease progression: clinical experience. Neurotherapeutics. 2008;5(2):210-225. View abstract.

Lim, S. C., Lekshminarayanan, R., Goh, S. K., Ong, Y. Y., Subramaniam, T., Sum, C. F., Ong, C. N., and Lee, B. L. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on microcirculatory endothelial function of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis 2008;196(2):966-969. View abstract.

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Littarru, G. P., Nakamura, R., Ho, L., Folkers, K., and Kuzell, W. C. Deficiency of coenzyme Q 10 in gingival tissue from patients with periodontal disease. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 1971;68(10):2332-2335. View abstract.

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Liu, Z. X. and Artmann, C. Relative bioavailability comparison of different coenzyme Q10 formulations with a novel delivery system. Altern.Ther Health Med 2009;15(2):42-46. View abstract.

Lockwood, K., Moesgaard, S., Hanioka, T., and Folkers, K. Apparent partial remission of breast cancer in 'high risk' patients supplemented with nutritional antioxidants, essential fatty acids and coenzyme Q10. Mol.Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s231-s240. View abstract.

Lodi, R., Hart, P. E., Rajagopalan, B., Taylor, D. J., Crilley, J. G., Bradley, J. L., Blamire, A. M., Manners, D., Styles, P., Schapira, A. H., and Cooper, J. M. Antioxidant treatment improves in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in patients with Friedreich's ataxia. Ann.Neurol. 2001;49(5):590-596. View abstract.

Lopes, C. M., Martins-Lopes, P., and Souto, E. B. Nanoparticulate carriers (NPC) for oral pharmaceutics and nutraceutics. Pharmazie 2010;65(2):75-82. View abstract.

Lopez, L. C., Schuelke, M., Quinzii, C. M., Kanki, T., Rodenburg, R. J., Naini, A., DiMauro, S., and Hirano, M. Leigh syndrome with nephropathy and CoQ10 deficiency due to decaprenyl diphosphate synthase subunit 2 (PDSS2) mutations. Am J Hum.Genet. 2006;79(6):1125-1129. View abstract.

Lopez-Lluch, G., Barroso, M. P., Martin, S. F., Fernandez-Ayala, D. J., Gomez-Diaz, C., Villalba, J. M., and Navas, P. Role of plasma membrane coenzyme Q on the regulation of apoptosis. Biofactors 1999;9(2-4):171-177. View abstract.

Lowes, D. A., Thottakam, B. M., Webster, N. R., Murphy, M. P., and Galley, H. F. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ protects against organ damage in a lipopolysaccharide-peptidoglycan model of sepsis. Free Radic.Biol.Med 12-1-2008;45(11):1559-1565. View abstract.

Lowes, D. A., Wallace, C., Murphy, M. P., Webster, N. R., and Galley, H. F. The mitochondria targeted antioxidant MitoQ protects against fluoroquinolone-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane damage in human Achilles tendon cells. Free Radic.Res 2009;43(4):323-328. View abstract.

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Maeda, K., Tatsumi, M., Tahara, M., Murata, Y., Kawai, H., and Yasuda, H. [A case of stroke-like episode of MELAS of which progressive spread would be prevented by edaravone]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2005;45(6):416-421. View abstract.

Makhija, N., Sendasgupta, C., Kiran, U., Lakshmy, R., Hote, M. P., Choudhary, S. K., Airan, B., and Abraham, R. The role of oral coenzyme Q10 in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Cardiothorac.Vasc.Anesth. 2008;22(6):832-839. View abstract.

Malm, C., Svensson, M., Sjoberg, B., Ekblom, B., and Sjodin, B. Supplementation with ubiquinone-10 causes cellular damage during intense exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1996;157(4):511-512. View abstract.

Mancini, A., Conte, B., De, Marinis L., Hallgass, M. E., Pozza, D., Oradei, A., and Littarru, G. P. Coenzyme Q10 levels in human seminal fluid: diagnostic and clinical implications. Mol.Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s249-s255. View abstract.

Mancini, A., Conte, G., Milardi, D., De Marinis, L., and Littarru, G. P. Relationship between sperm cell ubiquinone and seminal parameters in subjects with and without varicocele. Andrologia 1998;30(1):1-4. View abstract.

Mancini, A., De, Marinis L., Oradei, A., Hallgass, M. E., Conte, G., Pozza, D., and Littarru, G. P. Coenzyme Q10 concentrations in normal and pathological human seminal fluid. J Androl 1994;15(6):591-594. View abstract.

Mancini, A., Milardi, D., Conte, G., Festa, R., De Marinis, L., and Littarru, G. P. Seminal antioxidants in humans: preoperative and postoperative evaluation of coenzyme Q10 in varicocele patients. Horm.Metab Res 2005;37(7):428-432. View abstract.

Manzoli, U., Rossi, E., Littarru, G. P., Frustaci, A., Lippa, S., Oradei, A., and Aureli, V. Coenzyme Q10 in dilated cardiomyopathy. Int J Tissue React. 1990;12(3):173-178. View abstract.

Marazzi, G., Cacciotti, L., Pelliccia, F., Iaia, L., Volterrani, M., Caminiti, G., Sposato, B., Massaro, R., Grieco, F., and Rosano, G. Long-term effects of nutraceuticals (berberine, red yeast rice, policosanol) in elderly hypercholesterolemic patients. Adv.Ther 2011;28(12):1105-1113. View abstract.

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Matsumura, T., Saji, S., Nakamura, R., and Folkers, K. Evidence for enhanced treatment of periodontal disease by therapy with coenzyme Q. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 1973;43(4):537-548. View abstract.

Matthews, P. M., Ford, B., Dandurand, R. J., Eidelman, D. H., O'Connor, D., Sherwin, A., Karpati, G., Andermann, F., and Arnold, D. L. Coenzyme Q10 with multiple vitamins is generally ineffective in treatment of mitochondrial disease. Neurology 1993;43(5):884-890. View abstract.

Mauskop, A. Nonmedication, alternative, and complementary treatments for migraine. Continuum (Minneap.Minn.) 2012;18(4):796-806. View abstract.

Mazzola C, Guffanti EE, Vaccarella A, and et al. Noninvasive assessment of coenzyme Q10 in patients with chronic stable effort angina and moderate heart failure. Current Therapeutic Research 1987;41(6):923-932.

Meier, T. and Buyse, G. Idebenone: an emerging therapy for Friedreich ataxia. J Neurol. 2009;256 Suppl 1:25-30. View abstract.

Meier, T., Perlman, S. L., Rummey, C., Coppard, N. J., and Lynch, D. R. Assessment of neurological efficacy of idebenone in pediatric patients with Friedreich's ataxia: data from a 6-month controlled study followed by a 12-month open-label extension study. J Neurol. 2012;259(2):284-291. View abstract.

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Menke, T., Niklowitz, P., Wiesel, T., and Andler, W. Antioxidant level and redox status of coenzyme Q10 in the plasma and blood cells of children with diabetes mellitus type 1. Pediatr Diabetes 2008;9(6):540-545. View abstract.

Mestre, T., Ferreira, J., Coelho, M. M., Rosa, M., and Sampaio, C. Therapeutic interventions for disease progression in Huntington's disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(3):CD006455. View abstract.

Migliore, L., Molinu, S., Naccarati, A., Mancuso, M., Rocchi, A., and Siciliano, G. Evaluation of cytogenetic and DNA damage in mitochondrial disease patients: effects of coenzyme Q10 therapy. Mutagenesis 2004;19(1):43-49. View abstract.

Mikhin, V. P., Kharchenko, A. V., Rosliakova, E. A., and Cherniatina, M. A. [Application of coenzyme Q(10) in combination therapy of arterial hypertension]. Kardiologiia. 2011;51(6):26-31. View abstract.

Miles, M. V., Miles, L., Tang, P. H., Horn, P. S., Steele, P. E., Degrauw, A. J., Wong, B. L., and Bove, K. E. Systematic evaluation of muscle coenzyme Q10 content in children with mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme deficiencies. Mitochondrion. 2008;8(2):170-180. View abstract.

Miles, M. V., Patterson, B. J., Schapiro, M. B., Hickey, F. J., Chalfonte-Evans, M., Horn, P. S., and Hotze, S. L. Coenzyme Q10 absorption and tolerance in children with Down syndrome: a dose-ranging trial. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;35(1):30-37. View abstract.

Miles, M. V., Tang, P. H., Miles, L., Steele, P. E., Moye, M. J., and Horn, P. S. Validation and application of an HPLC-EC method for analysis of coenzyme Q10 in blood platelets. Biomed.Chromatogr. 2008;22(12):1403-1408. View abstract.

Minagawa, N., Uehara, M., Seki, S., Nitta, A., and Kogawara, K. [Effects of combined addition of atovaquone and lithium on the in vitro cell growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2010;130(2):247-251. View abstract.

Miquel, J. Can antioxidant diet supplementation protect against age-related mitochondrial damage? Ann N Y.Acad Sci 2002;959:508-516. View abstract.

Mischley, L. K., Allen, J., and Bradley, R. Coenzyme Q10 deficiency in patients with Parkinson's disease. J.Neurol.Sci. 7-15-2012;318(1-2):72-75. View abstract.

Mizuno, K., Tanaka, M., Nozaki, S., Mizuma, H., Ataka, S., Tahara, T., Sugino, T., Shirai, T., Kajimoto, Y., Kuratsune, H., Kajimoto, O., and Watanabe, Y. Antifatigue effects of coenzyme Q10 during physical fatigue. Nutrition 2008;24(4):293-299. View abstract.

Mizuno, M., Quistorff, B., Theorell, H., Theorell, M., and Chance, B. Effects of oral supplementation of coenzyme Q10 on 31P-NMR detected skeletal muscle energy metabolism in middle-aged post-polio subjects and normal volunteers. Mol.Aspects Med 1997;18 Suppl:S291-S298. View abstract.

Mizushina, Y., Takeuchi, T., Takakusagi, Y., Yonezawa, Y., Mizuno, T., Yanagi, K., Imamoto, N., Sugawara, F., Sakaguchi, K., Yoshida, H., and Fujita, M. Coenzyme Q10 as a potent compound that inhibits Cdt1-geminin interaction. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2008;1780(2):203-213. View abstract.

Mohr, D., Bowry, V. W., and Stocker, R. Dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoprotein to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta 6-26-1992;1126(3):247-254. View abstract.

Molyneux, S. L., Florkowski, C. M., George, P. M., Pilbrow, A. P., Frampton, C. M., Lever, M., and Richards, A. M. Coenzyme Q10: an independent predictor of mortality in chronic heart failure. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 10-28-2008;52(18):1435-1441. View abstract.

Molyneux, S. L., Florkowski, C. M., Richards, A. M., Lever, M., Young, J. M., and George, P. M. Coenzyme Q10; an adjunctive therapy for congestive heart failure? N.Z.Med J 10-30-2009;122(1305):74-79. View abstract.

Montero, R., Sanchez-Alcazar, J. A., Briones, P., Hernandez, A. R., Cordero, M. D., Trevisson, E., Salviati, L., Pineda, M., Garcia-Cazorla, A., Navas, P., and Artuch, R. Analysis of coenzyme Q10 in muscle and fibroblasts for the diagnosis of CoQ10 deficiency syndromes. Clin Biochem. 2008;41(9):697-700. View abstract.

Montero, R., Sanchez-Alcazar, J. A., Briones, P., Navarro-Sastre, A., Gallardo, E., Bornstein, B., Herrero-Martin, D., Rivera, H., Martin, M. A., Marti, R., Garcia-Cazorla, A., Montoya, J., Navas, P., and Artuch, R. Coenzyme Q10 deficiency associated with a mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome: a case report. Clin Biochem. 2009;42(7-8):742-745. View abstract.

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Mori, T. A., Burke, V., Puddey, I., Irish, A., Cowpland, C. A., Beilin, L., Dogra, G., and Watts, G. F. The effects of [omega]3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 on blood pressure and heart rate in chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial. J Hypertens. 2009;27(9):1863-1872. View abstract.

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Mozaffarieh, M., Grieshaber, M. C., Orgul, S., and Flammer, J. The potential value of natural antioxidative treatment in glaucoma. Surv.Ophthalmol. 2008;53(5):479-505. View abstract.

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Murata, T., Ohtsuka, C., and Terayama, Y. Increased mitochondrial oxidative damage and oxidative DNA damage contributes to the neurodegenerative process in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Free Radic.Res 2008;42(3):221-225. View abstract.

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Muta-Takada, K., Terada, T., Yamanishi, H., Ashida, Y., Inomata, S., Nishiyama, T., and Amano, S. Coenzyme Q10 protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death and enhances the synthesis of basement membrane components in dermal and epidermal cells. Biofactors 2009;35(5):435-441. View abstract.

Myers, L., Farmer, J. M., Wilson, R. B., Friedman, L., Tsou, A., Perlman, S. L., Subramony, S. H., Gomez, C. M., Ashizawa, T., Wilmot, G. R., Mathews, K. D., Balcer, L. J., and Lynch, D. R. Antioxidant use in Friedreich ataxia. J Neurol.Sci 4-15-2008;267(1-2):174-176. View abstract.

Nadjarzadeh, A., Sadeghi, M. R., Amirjannati, N., Vafa, M. R., Motevalian, S. A., Gohari, M. R., Akhondi, M. A., Yavari, P., and Shidfar, F. Coenzyme Q10 improves seminal oxidative defense but does not affect on semen parameters in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial. J Endocrinol.Invest 2011;34(8):e224-e228. View abstract.

Nahas, R. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches to blood pressure reduction: An evidence-based review. Can.Fam.Physician 2008;54(11):1529-1533. View abstract.

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Oda, T. Recovery of load-induced left ventricular diastolic dysfunction by coenzyme Q10: echocardiographic study. Mol.Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s149-s154. View abstract.

Oda, T. Recovery of the systolic time intervals by coenzyme Q10 in patients with a load-induced cardiac dysfunction. Mol.Aspects Med 1997;18 Suppl:S153-S158. View abstract.

Ogasahara, S., Nishikawa, Y., Yorifuji, S., Soga, F., Nakamura, Y., Takahashi, M., Hashimoto, S., Kono, N., and Tarui, S. Treatment of Kearns-Sayre syndrome with coenzyme Q10. Neurology 1986;36(1):45-53. View abstract.

Ogasahara, S., Yorifuji, S., Nishikawa, Y., Takahashi, M., Wada, K., Hazama, T., Nakamura, Y., Hashimoto, S., Kono, N., and Tarui, S. Improvement of abnormal pyruvate metabolism and cardiac conduction defect with coenzyme Q10 in Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Neurology 1985;35(3):372-377. View abstract.

Okamoto, T., Fukui, K., Nakamoto, M., Kishi, T., Okishio, T., Yamagami, T., Kanamori, N., Kishi, H., and Hiraoka, E. High-performance liquid chromatography of coenzyme Q-related compounds and its application to biological materials. J Chromatogr. 7-12-1985;342(1):35-46. View abstract.

Okamura, T., Sunamori, M., Amano, J., Hirooka, Y., Ozeki, M., Tanaka, A., and Suzuki, A. Combined treatment of coenzyme Q10 and aprotinin with intraaortic balloon pumping following aorto-coronary bypass surgery. Jpn.J Surg 1984;14(2):97-103. View abstract.

Okuma, K., Furuta, I., and Ota, K. [Protective effect of coenzyme Q10 in cardiotoxicity induced by adriamycin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1984;11(3):502-508. View abstract.

Okuyama, S. and Mishina, H. Principia of cancer therapy. VI. Application of ubiquinone ointment for intractable radiation ulcers: an expanded cytochrome C effect? Sci Rep.Res Inst.Tohoku Univ [Med] 1983;30(1-4):36-39. View abstract.

Orsucci, D., Filosto, M., Siciliano, G., and Mancuso, M. Electron transfer mediators and other metabolites and cofactors in the treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction. Nutr Rev. 2009;67(8):427-438. View abstract.

Ozaki, A., Muromachi, A., Sumi, M., Sakai, Y., Morishita, K., and Okamoto, T. Emulsification of coenzyme Q10 using gum arabic increases bioavailability in rats and human and improves food-processing suitability. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2010;56(1):41-47. View abstract.

Palacka, P., Kucharska, J., Murin, J., Dostalova, K., Okkelova, A., Cizova, M., Waczulikova, I., Moricova, S., and Gvozdjakova, A. Complementary therapy in diabetic patients with chronic complications: a pilot study. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2010;111(4):205-211. View abstract.

Palomaki, A., Malminiemi, K., Solakivi, T., and Malminiemi, O. Ubiquinone supplementation during lovastatin treatment: effect on LDL oxidation ex vivo. J Lipid Res 1998;39(7):1430-1437. View abstract.

Pandolfo, M. Introduction. Idebenone in the treatment of Friedreich ataxia. J Neurol. 2009;256 Suppl 1:1-2. View abstract.

Papas, K. A., Sontag, M. K., Pardee, C., Sokol, R. J., Sagel, S. D., Accurso, F. J., and Wagener, J. S. A pilot study on the safety and efficacy of a novel antioxidant rich formulation in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst.Fibros. 2008;7(1):60-67. View abstract.

Parashos, S. A., Swearingen, C. J., Biglan, K. M., Bodis-Wollner, I., Liang, G. S., Ross, G. W., Tilley, B. C., and Shulman, L. M. Determinants of the timing of symptomatic treatment in early Parkinson disease: The National Institutes of Health Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease (NET-PD) Experience. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(9):1099-1104. View abstract.

Pardeike, J., Schwabe, K., and Muller, R. H. Influence of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) on the physical properties of the Cutanova Nanorepair Q10 cream and the in vivo skin hydration effect. Int.J Pharm. 8-30-2010;396(1-2):166-173. View abstract.

Patchett, D. C. and Grover, M. L. Mitochondrial myopathy presenting as rhabdomyolysis. J Am Osteopath.Assoc. 2011;111(6):404-405. View abstract.

Patel, B. P. and Hamadeh, M. J. Nutritional and exercise-based interventions in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Clin Nutr. 2009;28(6):604-617. View abstract.

Pepe, S., Leong, J. Y., Van der Merwe, J., Marasco, S. F., Hadj, A., Lymbury, R., Perkins, A., and Rosenfeldt, F. L. Targeting oxidative stress in surgery: effects of ageing and therapy. Exp.Gerontol. 2008;43(7):653-657. View abstract.

Pfeffer, G., Majamaa, K., Turnbull, D. M., Thorburn, D., and Chinnery, P. F. Treatment for mitochondrial disorders. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD004426. View abstract.

Pineda, M., Arpa, J., Montero, R., Aracil, A., Dominguez, F., Galvan, M., Mas, A., Martorell, L., Sierra, C., Brandi, N., Garcia-Arumi, E., Rissech, M., Velasco, D., Costa, J. A., and Artuch, R. Idebenone treatment in paediatric and adult patients with Friedreich ataxia: long-term follow-up. Eur J Paediatr.Neurol. 2008;12(6):470-475. View abstract.

Pineda, M., Montero, R., Aracil, A., O'Callaghan, M. M., Mas, A., Espinos, C., Martinez-Rubio, D., Palau, F., Navas, P., Briones, P., and Artuch, R. Coenzyme Q(10)-responsive ataxia: 2-year-treatment follow-up. Mov Disord. 7-15-2010;25(9):1262-1268. View abstract.

Plecita-Hlavata, L., Jezek, J., and Jezek, P. Pro-oxidant mitochondrial matrix-targeted ubiquinone MitoQ10 acts as anti-oxidant at retarded electron transport or proton pumping within Complex I. Int.J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41(8-9):1697-1707. View abstract.

Pogessi L, Galanti G, Corneglio M, and et al. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on left ventricular function in patients with dilative cardiomyopathy. Curr Ther Res 1991;49 :878-886.

Portakal, O. and Inal-Erden, M. Effects of pentoxifylline and coenzyme Q10 in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Clin Biochem 1999;32(6):461-466. View abstract.

Porter, D. A., Costill, D. L., Zachwieja, J. J., Krzeminski, K., Fink, W. J., Wagner, E., and Folkers, K. The effect of oral coenzyme Q10 on the exercise tolerance of middle- aged, untrained men. Int J Sports Med 1995;16(7):421-427. View abstract.

Prahl, S., Kueper, T., Biernoth, T., Wohrmann, Y., Munster, A., Furstenau, M., Schmidt, M., Schulze, C., Wittern, K. P., Wenck, H., Muhr, G. M., and Blatt, T. Aging skin is functionally anaerobic: importance of coenzyme Q10 for anti aging skin care. Biofactors 2008;32(1-4):245-255. View abstract.

Premkumar, V. G., Yuvaraj, S., Sathish, S., Shanthi, P., and Sachdanandam, P. Anti-angiogenic potential of CoenzymeQ10, riboflavin and niacin in breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2008;48(4-6):191-201. View abstract.

Prieme, H., Loft, S., Nyyssonen, K., Salonen, J. T., and Poulsen, H. E. No effect of supplementation with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or coenzyme Q10 on oxidative DNA damage estimated by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'- deoxyguanosine excretion in smokers. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(2):503-507. View abstract.

Puizina-Ivic, N. Skin aging. Acta Dermatovenerol.Alp Panonica.Adriat. 2008;17(2):47-54. View abstract.

Qu, J., Kaufman, Y., and Washington, I. Coenzyme Q10 in the human retina. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci 2009;50(4):1814-1818. View abstract.

Rakoczi, K., Klivenyi, P., and Vecsei, L. [Neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders: preclinical and clinical findings]. Ideggyogy.Sz 1-30-2009;62(1-2):25-34. View abstract.

Ramelli, G. P., Gallati, S., Weis, J., Krahenbuhl, S., and Burgunder, J. M. Point mutation tRNA(Ser(UCN)) in a child with hearing loss and myoclonus epilepsy. J Child Neurol. 2006;21(3):253-255. View abstract.

Ramirez-Tortosa, M. C., Quiles, J. L., Battino, M., Granados, S., Morillo, J. M., Bompadre, S., Newman, H. N., and Bullon, P. Periodontitis is associated with altered plasma fatty acids and cardiovascular risk markers. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2010;20(2):133-139. View abstract.

Ranen, N. G., Peyser, C. E., Coyle, J. T., Bylsma, F. W., Sherr, M., Day, L., Folstein, M. F., Brandt, J., Ross, C. A., and Folstein, S. E. A controlled trial of idebenone in Huntington's disease. Mov Disord. 1996;11(5):549-554. View abstract.

Rastogi SS, Singh RB, and Shukla PK. Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 in patients with hyperinsulinemia. First Conference of the International Coenzyme Q10 Association 2002;

Ravina, B., Romer, M., Constantinescu, R., Biglan, K., Brocht, A., Kieburtz, K., Shoulson, I., and McDermott, M. P. The relationship between CAG repeat length and clinical progression in Huntington's disease. Mov Disord. 7-15-2008;23(9):1223-1227. View abstract.

Redfearn, E. R. Mode of action of ubiquinones (coenzymes Q) in electron transport systems. Vitam Horm 1966;24:465-488. View abstract.

Reid, M. S., Casadonte, P., Baker, S., Sanfilipo, M., Braunstein, D., Hitzemann, R., Montgomery, A., Majewska, D., Robinson, J., and Rotrosen, J. A placebo-controlled screening trial of olanzapine, valproate, and coenzyme Q10/L-carnitine for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Addiction 2005;100 Suppl 1:43-57. View abstract.

Reiter, M., Rupp, K., Baumeister, P., Zieger, S., and Harreus, U. Antioxidant effects of quercetin and coenzyme Q10 in mini organ cultures of human nasal mucosa cells. Anticancer Res 2009;29(1):33-39. View abstract.

Rinaldi, C., Tucci, T., Maione, S., Giunta, A., De, Michele G., and Filla, A. Low-dose idebenone treatment in Friedreich's ataxia with and without cardiac hypertrophy. J Neurol. 2009;256(9):1434-1437. View abstract.

Roberts J. The effects of coenzyme Q10 on excercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990;22((suppl)):S87.

Rodriguez, M. C., MacDonald, J. R., Mahoney, D. J., Parise, G., Beal, M. F., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Beneficial effects of creatine, CoQ10, and lipoic acid in mitochondrial disorders. Muscle Nerve 2007;35(2):235-242. View abstract.

Rodriguez-Hernandez, A., Cordero, M. D., Salviati, L., Artuch, R., Pineda, M., Briones, P., Gomez, Izquierdo L., Cotan, D., Navas, P., and Sanchez-Alcazar, J. A. Coenzyme Q deficiency triggers mitochondria degradation by mitophagy. Autophagy. 1-1-2009;5(1):19-32. View abstract.

Roland, L., Gagne, A., Belanger, M. C., Boutet, M., Berthiaume, L., Fraser, W. D., Julien, P., and Bilodeau, J. F. Existence of compensatory defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and hypertension in preeclampsia. Hypertens.Pregnancy. 2010;29(1):21-37. View abstract.

Rosenfeldt, F. L., Haas, S. J., Krum, H., Hadj, A., Ng, K., Leong, J. Y., and Watts, G. F. Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials. J Hum.Hypertens. 2007;21(4):297-306. View abstract.

Rosenfeldt, F. L., Pepe, S., Linnane, A., Nagley, P., Rowland, M., Ou, R., Marasco, S., and Lyon, W. The effects of ageing on the response to cardiac surgery: protective strategies for the ageing myocardium. Biogerontology. 2002;3(1-2):37-40. View abstract.

Rosenfeldt, F., Marasco, S., Lyon, W., Wowk, M., Sheeran, F., Bailey, M., Esmore, D., Davis, B., Pick, A., Rabinov, M., Smith, J., Nagley, P., and Pepe, S. Coenzyme Q10 therapy before cardiac surgery improves mitochondrial function and in vitro contractility of myocardial tissue. J Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 2005;129(1):25-32. View abstract.

Rusciani, L., Proietti, I., Paradisi, A., Rusciani, A., Guerriero, G., Mammone, A., De Gaetano, A., and Lippa, S. Recombinant interferon alpha-2b and coenzyme Q10 as a postsurgical adjuvant therapy for melanoma: a 3-year trial with recombinant interferon-alpha and 5-year follow-up. Melanoma Res 2007;17(3):177-183. View abstract.

Rusciani, L., Proietti, I., Rusciani, A., Paradisi, A., Sbordoni, G., Alfano, C., Panunzi, S., De Gaetano, A., and Lippa, S. Low plasma coenzyme Q10 levels as an independent prognostic factor for melanoma progression. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;54(2):234-241. View abstract.

Ryo, K., Ito, A., Takatori, R., Tai, Y., Arikawa, K., Seido, T., Yamada, T., Shinpo, K., Tamaki, Y., Fujii, K., Yamamoto, Y., and Saito, I. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on salivary secretion. Clin Biochem 2011;44(8-9):669-674. View abstract.

Sacconi, S., Trevisson, E., Salviati, L., Ayme, S., Rigal, O., Redondo, A. G., Mancuso, M., Siciliano, G., Tonin, P., Angelini, C., Aure, K., Lombes, A., and Desnuelle, C. Coenzyme Q10 is frequently reduced in muscle of patients with mitochondrial myopathy. Neuromuscul.Disord. 2010;20(1):44-48. View abstract.

Sacher, H. L., Sacher, M. L., Landau, S. W., Kersten, R., Dooley, F., Sacher, A., Sacher, M., Dietrick, K., and Ichkhan, K. The clinical and hemodynamic effects of coenzyme Q10 in congestive cardiomyopathy. Am J Ther 1997;4(2-3):66-72. View abstract.

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