Vitamin E

Other Name(s):

Acétate d'Alpha Tocophérol, Acétate d'Alpha Tocophéryl, Acétate de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Acétate de DL-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Acétate de Tocophérol, Acétate de Tocophéryl, Acétate de Vitamine E, All Rac-Alpha-Tocopherol, All-Rac-Alpha-Tocophérol, Alpha-Tocophérol, Alpha Tocopherol Acetate, Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate, Alpha tocotrienol, Alpha tocotriénol, Alpha-tocopherol, Alpha-Tocophérol, Beta tocotrienol, Bêta-tocotriénol, Beta-tocopherol, Bêta-tocophérol, Concentré de Tocotriénol, D-Alpha Tocopherol, D-Alpha Tocophérol, D-Alpha Tocopheryl Succinate, D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate, D-Alpha Tocotrienol, D-Alpha Tocotriénol, D-Alpha-Tocopherol, D-Alpha-Tocophérol, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acid Succinate, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl Succinate, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl, D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, D-Beta-Tocopherol, D-Bêta-Tocophérol, D-Delta-Tocopherol, D-Delta-Tocophérol, Delta Tocotrienol, Delta-Tocotriénol, Delta-tocopherol, Delta-tocophérol, D-Gamma Tocotrienol, D-Gamma-Tocotriénol, D-Gamma-Tocopherol, D-Gamma-Tocophérol, DL-Alpha-Tocopherol, DL-Alpha-Tocophérol, DL-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, DL-Alpha-Tocopheryl, DL-Alpha-Tocophéryl, DL-Tocopherol, DL-Tocophérol, D-Tocopherol, D-Tocophérol, D-Tocopheryl Acetate, Fat-Soluble Vitamin, Gamma tocotrienol, Gamma-tocotriénol, Gamma-tocopherol, Gamma-tocophérol, Mixed Tocopherols, Mixed Tocotrienols, Palm Tocotrienols, Rice Tocotrienols, RRR-Alpha-Tocopherol, RRR-Alpha-Tocophérol, Succinate Acide de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Succinate Acide de Tocophéryl, Succinate de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Succinate de Tocophéryl, Succinate de Vitamine E, Tocopherol Acetate, Tocopherol, Tocophérol, Tocophérols Mixtes, Tocotriénols de Palme, Tocotriénols de Riz, Tocotriénols Mixtes, Tocopheryl Acetate, Tocopheryl Acid Succinate, Tocopheryl Succinate, Tocotrienol, Tocotriénol, Tocotrienol Concentrate, Tocotrienols, Tocotriénols, Vitamin E Acetate, Vitamin E Succinate, Vitamina E, Vitamine E, Vitamine Liposoluble, Vitamine Soluble dans les Graisses.


Vitamin E is a vitamin that dissolves in fat. It is found in many foods including vegetable oils, cereals, meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and wheat germ oil. It is also available as a supplement.

Vitamin E is used for treating vitamin E deficiency, which is rare, but can occur in people with certain genetic disorders and in very low-weight premature infants.

Some people use vitamin E for treating and preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels including hardening of the arteries, heart attack, chest pain, stroke, irregular heart beat (atrial fibrillation), heart failure, leg pain due to blocked arteries, and high blood pressure.

Vitamin E is also used for treating diabetes and its complications, liver disease, kidney disease, Peyronie's disease (painful erection in men), and enlarged prostate (BPH). It is used for preventing cancer, particularly lung and oral cancer in smokers; colorectal cancer and polyps; and gastric, skin, bladder, breast, head and neck, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. Vitamin E is also used decrease side effects of chemotherapy.

Some people use vitamin E for diseases of the brain and nervous system including Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, night cramps, restless leg syndrome, and for epilepsy, along with other medications. Vitamin E is also used for Huntington's chorea, and other disorders involving nerves and muscles.

Women use vitamin E for preventing complications in late pregnancy due to high blood pressure (pre-eclampsia), for preventing preterm labor, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), benign breast disease, weak bones (osteoporosis), painful periods, menopausal syndrome, hot flashes associated with breast cancer, and breast cysts.

Sometimes vitamin E is used to lessen the harmful effects of medical treatments such as dialysis and radiation. It is also used to reduce unwanted side effects of drugs such as hair loss in people taking doxorubicin and lung damage in people taking amiodarone.

Vitamin E is sometimes used for improving physical endurance, increasing energy, reducing muscle damage after exercise, and improving muscle strength.

Vitamin E is also used for cataracts, age-related vision loss (age-related macular degeneration), asthma, respiratory infections, skin disorders, aging skin, sunburns, cystic fibrosis, infertility, impotence, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), neurodegenerative disease called Lou Gherig's disease (ALS), leg cramps, peptic ulcers, H pylori, swelling in the middle layer of the eye (uveitis), mouth sores (oral mucosal lesions), movement and coordination disorder called dyspraxia, kidney problems in children (glomerulosclerosis), movement disorder (ataxia) associated with vitamin E deficiency (AVED), rheumatoid arthritis, for certain inherited diseases and to prevent allergies. Finally, vitamin E is used for preventing death.

Some people apply vitamin E to their skin to keep it from aging, sunburn, scarring, lice, stretch marks, and to protect against the skin effects of chemicals used for cancer therapy (chemotherapy).

The American Heart Association recommends obtaining antioxidants, including vitamin E, by eating a well-balanced diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rather than from supplements until more is known about the risks and benefits of taking supplements.

How does it work?

Vitamin E is an important vitamin required for the proper function of many organs in the body. It is also an antioxidant. This means it helps to slow down processes that damage cells.


Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, and Aging Brains See Slideshow

Uses & Effectiveness

Effective for...

  • Movement disorder (ataxia) associated with vitamin E deficiency. The genetic movement disorder called ataxia causes severe vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E supplements are used as part of the treatment for ataxia.
  • Vitamin E deficiency. Taking vitamin E by mouth is effective for preventing and treating vitamin E deficiency.

Possibly Effective for...

  • Alzheimer's disease. Some early research suggests that dietary intake of vitamin E is linked to a lower chance of developing Alzheimer's disease. But not all research agrees. Taking vitamin E supplements doesn't seem to prevent Alzheimer's disease from developing. In people who already have Alzheimer's disease, taking vitamin E along with some anti-Alzheimer's medicines might slow down the worsening of memory loss. Vitamin E might also delay the loss of independence and the need for caregiver assistance in people with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
  • Anemia. Some research shows that that taking vitamin E improves the response to the drug erythropoietin, which affects red blood cell production, in adults and children on hemodialysis.
  • Blood disorder (beta-thalassemia). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to benefit children with the blood disorder called beta-thalessemia and vitamin E deficiency.
  • Leakage of chemotherapy drug into surrounding tissue. Applying vitamin E to the skin together with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) seems to be effective for treating leakage of chemotherapy into surrounding tissues.
  • Chemotherapy-related nerve damage. Taking vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) before and after treatment with cisplatin chemotherapy might reduce the risk of nerve damage.
  • Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea). Taking vitamin E for 2 days before and for 3 days after bleeding begins seems to decrease pain severity and duration, and reduce menstrual blood loss.
  • Movement and coordination disorder called dyspraxia. Taking vitamin E by mouth together with evening primrose oil, thyme oil, and fish oils seems to improve movement disorders in children with dyspraxia.
  • Kidney problems in children (glomerulosclerosis). There is some evidence that taking vitamin E by mouth might improve kidney function in children with glomerulosclerosis.
  • An inherited disorder called G6PD deficiency. Some research shows that taking vitamin E by mouth, alone or together with selenium, might benefit people with an inherited disorder called G6PD deficiency.
  • Healing a type of skin sore called granuloma annulare. Applying vitamin E to the skin seems to clear up skin sores called granuloma annulare.
  • Huntington's disease. Natural vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) can improve symptoms in people with early Huntington's disease. However, it does not seem to help people with more advanced disease.
  • Male infertility. Taking vitamin E by mouth improves pregnancy rates for men with fertility problems. Taking high doses of vitamin E together with vitamin C does not seem to provide the same benefits.
  • Bleeding within the skull. Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to be effective for treating bleeding in the skull in premature infants.
  • Bleeding within the ventricular system of the brain. Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to be effective for treating bleeding within the ventricular system of the brain in premature infants.
  • Liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH). Taking vitamin E daily seems to improve inflammation and liver markers of this form of liver disease in adults and children.
  • Nitrate tolerance. There is some evidence that taking vitamin E daily can help prevent nitrate tolerance.
  • Parkinson's disease. Early evidence suggests that vitamin E intake in the diet might be linked with a decreased risk of Parkinson's disease. However, taking all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) does not seem to have any benefit for people with Parkinson's disease.
  • Laser eye surgery (photoreactive keratectomy). Taking high doses of vitamin A along with vitamin E (alpha-tocopheryl nicotinate) daily seems to improve healing and vision in people undergoing laser eye surgery.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to reduce anxiety, craving, and depression in some women with PMS.
  • Physical performance. Research suggests that increasing vitamin E intake in the diet is linked with improved physical performance and muscle strength in older people.
  • Fibrosis caused by radiation. Taking vitamin E by mouth with the drug pentoxifylline seems to treat fibrosis caused by radiation. However, taking vitamin E alone does not seem to be effective.
  • An eye disease in newborns called retinopathy of prematurity. Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to be effective for treating an eye disease cause retinopathy of prematurity in newborns.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Vitamin E taken along with standard treatment is better than standard treatment alone for reducing pain in people with RA. However, this combination does not reduce swelling.
  • Sunburn. Taking high doses of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) by mouth together with vitamin C protects against skin inflammation after exposure to UV radiation. However, vitamin E alone does not provide the same benefit. Applying vitamin E to the skin, together with vitamin C and melatonin, provides some protection when used before UV exposure.
  • Movement disorder (tardive dyskinesia). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to improve symptoms associated with the movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. However, some other research suggests that it does not improve symptoms, but may prevent symptoms from worsening.
  • Swelling in the middle layer of the eye (uveitis). Taking vitamin E with vitamin C by mouth seems to improve vision, but does not reduce swelling, in people with uveitis.

Possibly Ineffective for...

  • Age-related vision loss (age-related macular degeneration). The majority of research suggests that taking vitamin E, alone or along with other antioxidants, is not effective for preventing or treating age-related vision loss.
  • Neurodegenerative disease called Lou Gherig's disease (ALS). Research suggests that taking vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) along with conventional medication does not affect function or increase survival rates compared to conventional medication alone in people with Lou Gherig's disease.
  • Chest pain (angina). Taking vitamin E by mouth might have some effect on the functioning of blood vessels, but does not appear to reduce chest pain.
  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Taking vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) by mouth does not appear to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. However, there is some early evidence that taking vitamin E and vitamin C might help prevent the progression of atherosclerosis in men.
  • Cataracts. Most evidence shows that taking vitamin E does not prevent cataracts.
  • Red and itchy skin (eczema). Research suggests that taking vitamin E, alone or along with selenium, does not improve symptoms of eczema.
  • Hot flashes related to breast cancer. Taking vitamin E by mouth does not seem to reduce hot flashes in women who have had breast cancer.
  • Lung condition in infants (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Research shows that taking vitamin E by mouth does not benefit newborn infants with a lung condition called bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
  • Cancer. Taking a combination of vitamin E, vitamin C, beta carotene, selenium, and zinc does not seem to lower overall cancer risk. However, it might reduce the risk of cancer in men, although evidence is conflicting.
  • Colorectal cancer. Most evidence suggests that taking vitamin E does not prevent the occurrence of colorectal cancer or the development of non-cancerous colorectal tumors, which are considered precursors to colon cancer.
  • Heart failure. Taking vitamin E by mouth for 12 weeks does not seem to improve heart function in people with heart failure and does not decrease the risk of developing heart failure.
  • Muscle disease called Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Research shows that taking vitamin E with the drug penicillamine does not slow the progression of the muscle disease called Duchene muscular dystrophy.
  • Head and neck cancer. Taking vitamin E (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) daily during radiation therapy and for 3 years after the end of therapy does not seem to reduce the risk of head and neck cancer recurrence. There is some concern that taking vitamin E might actually increase the risk of tumor recurrence. People with head and neck cancer should avoid daily vitamin E supplements in doses over 400 IU daily.
  • Abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia). Giving vitamin E to premature infants does not have a beneficial effect on the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells.
  • High blood pressure. Taking vitamin E by mouth does not seem to lower blood pressure in people already taking blood pressure medications.
  • Liver disease. Taking vitamin E does not reduce the risk of death in people with liver disease.
  • An inherited muscle disorder called myotonic dystrophy. Taking vitamin E and selenium by mouth does not slow the progression of an inherited muscle disorder called myotonic dystrophy.
  • Mouth sores (oral mucosal lesions). Most research shows that taking vitamin E (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) for up to 7 years does not reduce the risk for mouth sores in men who smoke.
  • Osteoarthritis. Taking vitamin E does not seem to decrease pain or stiffness in people with osteoarthritis. Vitamin E also does not seem to prevent the condition from becoming worse.
  • Pancreatic cancer. Taking vitamin E, alone or together with other antioxidants such as beta-carotene and vitamin C, does not seem to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
  • Pharyngeal cancer. Research shows that people with diabetes who take vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) by mouth do not have a reduce risk of developing mouth or pharyngeal cancer.
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia). Most evidence suggests that taking a combination of vitamins E and C does not reduce the risk of high blood pressure during pregnancy. However, some research suggests that taking a combination of vitamins E and C daily reduces the risk of high blood pressure in high risk women when started in weeks 16 to 22 of pregnancy.
  • Prostate cancer. Research on the effects of vitamin E on prostate cancer risk has been inconsistent. Overall, research suggests that taking vitamin E supplements does not reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer, and might actually increase the risk.
  • Respiratory tract infections. Taking vitamin E by mouth, alone or as a multivitamin, does not appear to decrease the risk of respiratory tract infections or the severity of symptoms once an infection develops.
  • An eye condition called retinitis pigmentosa. Taking vitamin E (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) by mouth does not appear to slow vision loss, and might actually increase vision loss, in people with a condition called retinitis pigmentosa.
  • Scarring. Some research shows that applying vitamin E to the skin does not reduce scarring after surgery.

Likely Ineffective for...

  • Benign breast disease. Taking vitamin E supplements does not seem to be effective for treating benign breast disease.
  • Breast cancer. Although having higher blood levels of vitamin E might be linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer, increasing vitamin E intake from the diet or supplements does not reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Heart disease. Most research suggests that taking vitamin E supplements does not prevent heart disease. However, some evidence suggests that increasing vitamin E intake in the diet might be beneficial.
  • Early infant death. Vitamin E given to preterm infants does not seem to reduce the risk death in the infant.
  • Lung cancer. Taking all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) for up to 8 years does not reduce the risk of developing lung cancer in men who smoke. Also, taking vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) for up to 10 years does not prevent lung cancer or reduce the risk of death from lung cancer.
  • Death from any cause. Research suggests that taking vitamin E for at least 1 year does not reduce the risk of death from any cause.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Allergies. Taking vitamin E supplements during pregnancy does not seem to decrease the chance of infants having eczema, food allergy, wheeze, or any allergic disease later in life.
  • Asthma. The role of vitamin E in asthma is unclear. While some research suggests that vitamin E prevents the risk of asthma and improves breathing in children, other research does not show this effect.
  • Irregular heart beat (atrial fibrillation). Some research suggests that taking omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C, and vitamin E decreases the risk of irregular heartbeat after surgery. The effect of vitamin E alone is unclear.
  • Bladder cancer. Effectiveness of vitamin E for bladder cancer is unclear. Taking 200 IU of vitamin E by mouth for more than 10 years seems to help prevent death from bladder cancer. However, other research suggests that taking vitamin E has no effect on incidence of bladder cancer in men.
  • Infections related to chemotherapy. Research suggests that higher intake of vitamin E in the diet might reduce the risk of infection in children undergoing chemotherapy.
  • To prevent kidney damage from dyes injected into the vein. Some research shows that vitamin E injected into the vein does not decrease risk of kidney damage caused by injected dyes. However, other research shows that taking vitamin E by mouth decreases the risk of kidney damage from the same dyes.
  • Dementia. Some research suggests that men who consume vitamin E and vitamin C have a decreased risk of developing some types of dementia. But taking vitamin E supplements does not seem to prevent dementia.
  • Diabetes. Vitamin E might be beneficial for people with diabetes. Taking vitamin E may not improve blood sugar control in most people with diabetes. However it may help in people with low blood levels of vitamin E. Additionally, vitamin E may help improve blood sugar control in people with type 1 diabetes.
  • Diabetic nerve pain. Early research suggests that vitamin E may help relieve diabetic nerve pain.
  • Stomach cancer. Taking vitamin E plus beta-carotene and/or vitamin C does not seem to prevent stomach cancer. However, there is some evidence that consuming more vitamin E from the diet might decrease the risk slow the progression of stomach cancer.
  • An infection in the stomach by the bacteria H pylori. Early research suggests that taking vitamin C and vitamin E in addition to standard therapy increases chances of cure for people with dyspepsia due to H. pylori infection.
  • Kidney disease (IgA nephropathy). Early research suggests that taking vitamin E can improve kidney function in children with a kidney disease called IgA nephropathy.
  • Difficulty walking due to poor blood flow in the legs (intermittent claudication). Taking all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) alone or together with beta-carotene by mouth does not appear to improve poor blood flow in the legs. However, other research suggests that taking vitamin E daily for 18 months reduces symptoms of intermittent claudication.
  • Tissue damage after a blood clot (ischemic reperfusion injury). Taking vitamin E by mouth with vitamin C and conventional medication two days before bypass surgery and one day after surgery appears to reduce complications. However, vitamin E does not appear to be beneficial when taken alone.
  • Stroke caused by a clot (ischemic stroke). There is some evidence that all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) might help prevent stroke in male smokers who have high blood pressure and diabetes. However, other research suggests that it might not reduce the risk of stroke.
  • Lice. Early research suggests that using vitamin E spray (LiceKO) is more effective for removing head lice compared to permethrin rinse (Lyclear creme rinse).
  • Liver transplant. Taking vitamin E (tocopheryl succinate polyethylene glycol) might reduce the dose of immunosuppressant needed after a liver transplant.
  • Skin cancer (melanoma). Some evidence suggests that taking vitamin E (RR-alpha-tocopherol) daily does not reduce the risk of developing skin cancer.
  • Nighttime leg cramps. Early evidence suggests that vitamin E might reduce nighttime leg cramps. However, other evidence suggests otherwise.
  • A liver disease called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Some research shows that taking as specific supplement (Realsil) containing silybin, phosphatidylcholine, and vitamin E improves liver markers but does not improve life quality in people with NAFLD.
  • Mouth sores caused by chemotherapy (oral mucositis). Some drugs used to treat cancer can cause painful mouth sores. Early research shows that applying vitamin E to the inside of the mouth helps heal these sores and reduce pain in children.
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis). Early research suggests that consumnig vitamin E in the diet leads to a lower chance of hip and other fractures in adults over 40 years old.
  • Peyronie's disease (painful erection in men). Early research shows that adding vitamin E to regular treatment does not improve pain but may reduce plaque in people with Peyronie's disease.
  • Preterm labor. Early research suggests that taking vitamin C and vitamin E increases time until delivery by 5 days in pregnant women at risk for early labor.
  • Restless legs syndrome. Early research suggests that taking vitamin E, vitamin C, separately or together, reduces severity of restless leg syndrome compared to placebo in people on hemodialysis.
  • Sickle cell disease. Early research suggests that taking vitamin E with aged garlic extract and vitamin C might be useful for sickle cell anemia.
  • Stretch marks (striae gravidarum). Some research shows that using a moisturizer containing vitamin E, rosehip oil, hydroxyprolisilane C, and Centella asiatica triterpenes does not prevent new stretch marks but does appear to decrease their severity.
  • Allergies.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Common cold.
  • Epilepsy.
  • Skin disorders.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate vitamin E for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE for most healthy people when taken by mouth or applied to the skin. Most people do not experience any side effects when taking the recommended daily dose, which is 22.4 IU.

Vitamin E is POSSIBLY UNSAFE if taken by mouth in high doses. If you have a condition such as heart disease or diabetes, do not take doses of 400 IU/day or more. Some research suggests that high doses might increase the chance of death and possibly cause other serious side effects. The higher the dose, the greater the risk of serious side effects.

There is some concern that vitamin E might increase the chance of having a serious stroke called hemorrhagic stroke, which is bleeding into the brain. Some research shows that taking vitamin E in doses of 300-800 IU each day might increase the chance of this kind of stroke by 22%. However, in contrast, vitamin E might decrease the chance of having a less severe stroke called an ischemic stroke.

There is contradictory information about the effect of vitamin E on the chance of developing prostate cancer. Some research suggests that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate vitamin E supplement might actually increase the chance of developing prostate cancer in some men.

High doses can also cause nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramps, fatigue, weakness, headache, blurred vision, rash, and bruising and bleeding.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy: When used in the recommended daily amount, vitamin E is POSSIBLY SAFE for pregnant women. There has been some concern that taking vitamin E supplements might be harmful to the fetus when taken in early pregnancy. However, it is too soon to know if this is an important concern. Until more is known, do not take vitamin E supplements during early pregnancy without talking with your healthcare provider.

Breast-feeding: Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in recommended daily amounts during breast-feeding.

Infants and children: Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. The maximum amounts of vitamin E that are considered safe for children are based on age. Less than 298 IU daily is safe for children 1 to 3 years old. Less than 447 IU daily is safe for children 4 to 8 years old. Less than 894 IU daily is safe for children 9 to 13 years old. Less than 1192 IU daily is safe for children ages 14 to 18 years old. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when given intravenously (by IV) to premature infants in high doses.

Angioplasty, a heart procedure: Avoid taking supplements containing vitamin E or other antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C) immediately before and following angioplasty without the supervision of a health care professional. These vitamins seem to interfere with proper healing.

Diabetes: Vitamin E might increase the risk for heart failure in people with diabetes. People with diabetes should avoid high doses of vitamin E.

Heart attack: Vitamin E might increase the risk for death in people with a history of heart attack. People with a history of heart attack should avoid high doses of vitamin E.

Low levels of vitamin K (vitamin K deficiency): Vitamin E might worsen clotting problems in people whose levels of vitamin K are too low.

An eye condition called retinitis pigmentosa: All-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) 400 IU seems to speed vision loss in people with retinitis pigmentosa. However, much lower amounts (3 IU) do not seem to produce this effect. If you have this condition, it is best to avoid vitamin E.

Bleeding disorders: Vitamin E might make bleeding disorders worse. If you have a bleeding disorder, avoid taking vitamin E supplements.

Head and neck cancer: Do not take vitamin E supplements in doses of 400 IU/day or more. Vitamin E might increase the chance that cancer will return.

Prostate cancer: There is concern that taking vitamin E might increase the chance of developing prostate cancer. The effect of vitamin E in men who currently have prostate cancer is not clear. However, in theory, taking vitamin E supplements might worsen prostate cancer in men who already have it.

Stroke: Vitamin E might increase the risk for death in people with a history of stroke. People with a history of stroke should avoid high doses of vitamin E.

Surgery: Vitamin E might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using vitamin E at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


One of the first symptoms of Alzheimer's disease is __________________. See Answer


Antibiotics for Cancer (Antitumor Antibiotics)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Vitamin E is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of antibiotic medication used for cancer. But it is too soon to know if the interaction occurs. Some antibiotics used for cancer include doxorubicin (Adriamycin), daunorubicin (DaunoXome), epirubicin (Ellence), mitomycin (Mutamycin), bleomycin (Blenoxane), and others.

Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Taking large amounts of vitamin E along with cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might increase how much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) the body absorbs. By increasing how much cyclosporine the body absorbs, vitamin E might increase the effects and side effects of cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune).

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Vitamin E might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking vitamin E along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of some medications. Before taking vitamin E, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Medications for cancer (Alkylating agents)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Vitamin E is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. But it is too soon to know if the interaction occurs.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Vitamin E might slow blood clotting. Taking vitamin E along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Taking vitamin E, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and selenium together might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol. It is not known if taking vitamin E alone decreases the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol.

Some medications used for lowering cholesterol include atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), and pravastatin (Pravachol).

NiacinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Taking vitamin E along with beta-carotene, vitamin C, and selenium might decrease some of the beneficial effects of niacin. Niacin can increase the good cholesterol. Taking vitamin E along with these other vitamins might decrease the good cholesterol.

Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Vitamin E can also slow blood clotting. Taking vitamin E along with warfarin (Coumadin) can increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For vitamin E deficiency: a typical dose in adults is RRR-alpha tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 60-75 IU per day.
  • For a movement disorder (ataxia) associated with vitamin E deficiency.
  • For anemia: vitamin E 447-745 IU daily with erythropoietin 93-74 U/kg/week.
  • For the movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia: RRR-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 1600 IU daily.
  • For the movement and coordination disorder called dyspraxia in children: vitamin E (dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate) in combination with fish oil, evening primrose oil, and thyme oil (Efalex, Efamol Ltd) daily.
  • For improving male fertility: vitamin E 298-894 IU daily.
  • For Alzheimer's disease: up to 2000 IU daily. Combination therapy of donepezil (Aricept) 5 mg and vitamin E 1000 IU per day has been used for slowing memory decline in people with Alzheimer's disease.
  • For liver disease called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: 800 IU daily in adults has been used; 400-1200 IU daily has been used in children.
  • For early Huntington's chorea: RRR-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 3000 IU.
  • For rheumatoid arthritis pain: vitamin E 600 IU twice daily.
  • For preventing nerve damage caused by cisplatin: vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 447 IU daily with each chemotherapy treatment and for up to 3 months after stopping cisplatin therapy.
  • For improving effectiveness of nitrates used for heart disease: vitamin E 298 IU three times daily.
  • To reduce protein in the urine of children with a kidney disease called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: vitamin E 200 IU.
  • For G6PD deficiency: vitamin E 800 IU daily.
  • For premenstrual syndrome (PMS): RRR-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 400 IU daily.
  • For painful menstrual periods: vitamin E 200 IU twice or 500 IU daily starting 2 days before the menstrual period and continuing through the first 3 days of bleeding.
  • For healing the eyes after a surgery called keratectomy: 343 IU vitamin E (alpha-tocopheryl nicotinate) and vitamin A (retinol palmitate) 25,000 units have been used 3 times daily for 30 days, followed by twice daily for 2 months.
  • For fibrosis caused by radiation: vitamin E 1000 IU daily in combination with pentoxifylline 800 mg.
  • For beta-thalassemia: vitamin E 750 IU daily.
  • For swelling in the middle layer of the eye (uveitis): vitamin E (unspecified forms) 149 IU in combination with vitamin C 500 mg twice daily.
  • For preventing sunburn: RRR-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 1000 IU in combination with 2 grams of ascorbic acid.
For the most benefit, it's best to take vitamin E that has been made in a lab (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) with food.

Dosing for vitamin E can be confusing. Current guidelines show recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and upper tolerable limits (UTL) for vitamin E in milligrams. However, most products are still labeled in International Units (IUs).

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Cascinu, S., Ligi, M., Del, Ferro E., Foglietti, G., Cioccolini, P., Staccioli, M. P., Carnevali, A., Luigi Rocchi, M. B., Alessandroni, P., Giordani, P., Catalano, V., Polizzi, V., Agostinelli, R., Muretto, P., and Catalano, G. Effects of calcium and vitamin supplementation on colon cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Invest 2000;18(5):411-416. View abstract.

Catalano, M., Born, G., and Peto, R. Prevention of serious vascular events by aspirin amongst patients with peripheral arterial disease: randomized, double-blind trial. J.Intern.Med. 2007;261(3):276-284. View abstract.

Chalasani, N., Younossi, Z., Lavine, J. E., Diehl, A. M., Brunt, E. M., Cusi, K., Charlton, M., and Sanyal, A. J. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association. Am.J.Gastroenterol. 2012;107(6):811-826. View abstract.

Chan, J. C., Mahan, J. D., Trachtman, H., Scheinman, J., Flynn, J. T., Alon, U. S., Lande, M. B., Weiss, R. A., and Norkus, E. P. Vitamin E therapy in IgA nephropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pediatr.Nephrol. 2003;18(10):1015-1019. View abstract.

Chande, N., Laidlaw, M., Adams, P., and Marotta, P. Yo Jyo Hen Shi Ko (YHK) improves transaminases in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): a randomized pilot study. Dig Dis Sci 2006;51(7):1183-1189. View abstract.

Chandra, R. K. Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on immune responses and infection in elderly subjects. Lancet 11-7-1992;340(8828):1124-1127. View abstract.

Chao, W. H., Askew, E. W., Roberts, D. E., Wood, S. M., and Perkins, J. B. Oxidative stress in humans during work at moderate altitude. J Nutr. 1999;129(11):2009-2012. View abstract.

Chen, H., Tucker, K. L., Graubard, B. I., Heineman, E. F., Markin, R. S., Potischman, N. A., Russell, R. M., Weisenburger, D. D., and Ward, M. H. Nutrient intakes and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and distal stomach. Nutr Cancer 2002;42(1):33-40. View abstract.

Cheng, K. K., Sharp, L., McKinney, P. A., Logan, R. F., Chilvers, C. E., Cook-Mozaffari, P., Ahmed, A., and Day, N. E. A case-control study of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in women: a preventable disease. Br J Cancer 2000;83(1):127-132. View abstract.

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Chiswick, M. L., Johnson, M., Woodhall, C., Gowland, M., Davies, J., Toner, N., and Sims, D. G. Protective effect of vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol) against intraventricular haemorrhage in premature babies. Br.Med.J.(Clin.Res.Ed) 7-9-1983;287(6385):81-84. View abstract.

Chiswick, M. L., Wynn, J., and Toner, N. Vitamin E and intraventricular hemorrhage in the newborn. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1982;393:109-120. View abstract.

Christen, W. G., Glynn, R. J., Chew, E. Y., and Buring, J. E. Vitamin E and age-related cataract in a randomized trial of women. Ophthalmology 2008;115(5):822-829. View abstract.

Christen, W. G., Glynn, R. J., Chew, E. Y., and Buring, J. E. Vitamin E and age-related macular degeneration in a randomized trial of women. Ophthalmology 2010;117(6):1163-1168. View abstract.

Christen, W. G., Glynn, R. J., Sesso, H. D., Kurth, T., MacFadyen, J., Bubes, V., Buring, J. E., Manson, J. E., and Gaziano, J. M. Age-related cataract in a randomized trial of vitamins E and C in men. Arch.Ophthalmol. 2010;128(11):1397-1405. View abstract.

Christen, W. G., Liu, S., Glynn, R. J., Gaziano, J. M., and Buring, J. E. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of cataract in women: a prospective study. Arch.Ophthalmol. 2008;126(1):102-109. View abstract.

Christen, W. G., Manson, J. E., Glynn, R. J., Gaziano, J. M., Chew, E. Y., Buring, J. E., and Hennekens, C. H. Beta carotene supplementation and age-related maculopathy in a randomized trial of US physicians. Arch.Ophthalmol. 2007;125(3):333-339. View abstract.

Ciliberto, H., Ciliberto, M., Briend, A., Ashorn, P., Bier, D., and Manary, M. Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of kwashiorkor in Malawian children: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMJ 5-14-2005;330(7500):1109. View abstract.

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Clarke, M. W., Ward, N. C., Wu, J. H., Hodgson, J. M., Puddey, I. B., and Croft, K. D. Supplementation with mixed tocopherols increases serum and blood cell gamma-tocopherol but does not alter biomarkers of platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2006;83(1):95-102. View abstract.

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Clemons, T. E., Kurinij, N., and Sperduto, R. D. Associations of mortality with ocular disorders and an intervention of high-dose antioxidants and zinc in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: AREDS Report No. 13. Arch.Ophthalmol. 2004;122(5):716-726. View abstract.

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Collins, E. G., Edwin, Langbein W., Orebaugh, C., Bammert, C., Hanson, K., Reda, D., Edwards, L. C., and Littooy, F. N. PoleStriding exercise and vitamin E for management of peripheral vascular disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(3):384-393. View abstract.

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de Valk, H. W., Hardus, P. L., van Rijn, H. J., and Erkelens, D. W. Plasma magnesium concentration and progression of retinopathy. Diabetes Care 1999;22(5):864-865. View abstract.

de Waart, F. G., Kok, F. J., Smilde, T. J., Hijmans, A., Wollersheim, H., and Stalenhoef, A. F. Effect of glutathione S-transferase M1 genotype on progression of atherosclerosis in lifelong male smokers. Atherosclerosis 2001;158(1):227-231. View abstract.

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Delport, R., Ubbink, J. B., Human, J. A., Becker, P. J., Myburgh, D. P., and Vermaak, W. J. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary artery disease risk in South African males. Clin.Chim.Acta 1998;278(1):55-60. View abstract.

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Devaraj, S., Tang, R., Adams-Huet, B., Harris, A., Seenivasan, T., de Lemos, J. A., and Jialal, I. Effect of high-dose alpha-tocopherol supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2007;86(5):1392-1398. View abstract.

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Dimery, I. W., Hong, W. K., Lee, J. J., Guillory-Perez, C., Pham, F., Fritsche, H. A., Jr., and Lippman, S. M. Phase I trial of alpha-tocopherol effects on 13-cis-retinoic acid toxicity. Ann.Oncol. 1997;8(1):85-89. View abstract.

Donnan, P. T., Thomson, M., Fowkes, F. G., Prescott, R. J., and Housley, E. Diet as a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease in the general population: the Edinburgh Artery Study. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1993;57(6):917-921. View abstract.

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Dorgan, J. F., Sowell, A., Swanson, C. A., Potischman, N., Miller, R., Schussler, N., and Stephenson, H. E., Jr. Relationships of serum carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and selenium with breast cancer risk: results from a prospective study in Columbia, Missouri (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1998;9(1):89-97. View abstract.

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Dufour, J. F., Oneta, C. M., Gonvers, J. J., Bihl, F., Cerny, A., Cereda, J. M., Zala, J. F., Helbling, B., Steuerwald, M., and Zimmermann, A. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of ursodeoxycholic acid with vitamin e in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin.Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2006;4(12):1537-1543. View abstract.

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Eichholzer, M., Stahelin, H. B., Gey, K. F., Ludin, E., and Bernasconi, F. Prediction of male cancer mortality by plasma levels of interacting vitamins: 17-year follow-up of the prospective Basel study. Int.J.Cancer 4-10-1996;66(2):145-150. View abstract.

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Esteve, J., Riboli, E., Pequignot, G., Terracini, B., Merletti, F., Crosignani, P., Ascunce, N., Zubiri, L., Blanchet, F., Raymond, L., Repetto, F., and Tuyns, A. J. Diet and cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx: the IARC multi-center study in southwestern Europe. Cancer Causes Control 1996;7(2):240-252. View abstract.

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Fang, J. C., Kinlay, S., Beltrame, J., Hikiti, H., Wainstein, M., Behrendt, D., Suh, J., Frei, B., Mudge, G. H., Selwyn, A. P., and Ganz, P. Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial. Lancet 3-30-2002;359(9312):1108-1113. View abstract.

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Favero, A., Parpinel, M., and Franceschi, S. Diet and risk of breast cancer: major findings from an Italian case-control study. Biomed.Pharmacother. 1998;52(3):109-115. View abstract.

Feki, M., Souissi, M., Mokhtar, E., Hsairi, M., Kaabachi, N., Antebi, H., Alcindor, L. G., Mechmeche, R., and Mebazaa, A. Vitamin E and coronary heart disease in Tunisians. Clin.Chem. 2000;46(9):1401-1405. View abstract.

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Fischer, A. F., Inguillo, D., Martin, D. M., Ochikubo, C. G., Vreman, H. J., and Stevenson, D. K. Carboxyhemoglobin concentration as an index of bilirubin production in neonates with birth weights less than 1,500 grams: a randomized double-blind comparison of supplemental oral vitamin E and placebo. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1987;6(5):748-751. View abstract.

Fleischauer, A. T., Olson, S. H., Mignone, L., Simonsen, N., Caputo, T. A., and Harlap, S. Dietary antioxidants, supplements, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Nutr.Cancer 2001;40(2):92-98. View abstract.

Fletcher, A. E., Breeze, E., and Shetty, P. S. Antioxidant vitamins and mortality in older persons: findings from the nutrition add-on study to the Medical Research Council Trial of Assessment and Management of Older People in the Community. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003;78(5):999-1010. View abstract.

Franceschi, S., Bidoli, E., Negri, E., Zambon, P., Talamini, R., Ruol, A., Parpinel, M., Levi, F., Simonato, L., and La, Vecchia C. Role of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals in the aetiology of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Int.J.Cancer 6-1-2000;86(5):626-631. View abstract.

Fulan, H., Changxing, J., Baina, W. Y., Wencui, Z., Chunqing, L., Fan, W., Dandan, L., Dianjun, S., Tong, W., Da, P., and Yashuang, Z. Retinol, vitamins A, C, and E and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Cancer Causes Control 2011;22(10):1383-1396. View abstract.

Fung, T. T., Spiegelman, D., Egan, K. M., Giovannucci, E., Hunter, D. J., and Willett, W. C. Vitamin and carotenoid intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Int.J.Cancer 1-1-2003;103(1):110-115. View abstract.

Gabbay, E., Zigmond, E., Pappo, O., Hemed, N., Rowe, M., Zabrecky, G., Cohen, R., and Ilan, Y. Antioxidant therapy for chronic hepatitis C after failure of interferon: results of phase II randomized, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. World J Gastroenterol 10-28-2007;13(40):5317-5323. View abstract.

Gaby, A. R. Natural approaches to epilepsy. Altern.Med Rev. 2007;12(1):9-24. View abstract.

Galli, F., Battistoni, A., Gambari, R., Pompella, A., Bragonzi, A., Pilolli, F., Iuliano, L., Piroddi, M., Dechecchi, M. C., and Cabrini, G. Oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in cystic fibrosis. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2012;1822(5):690-713. View abstract.

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Garbagnati, F., Cairella, G., De, Martino A., Multari, M., Scognamiglio, U., Venturiero, V., and Paolucci, S. Is antioxidant and n-3 supplementation able to improve functional status in poststroke patients? Results from the Nutristroke Trial. Cerebrovasc.Dis. 2009;27(4):375-383. View abstract.

Garrett, S. K., McNeil, J. J., Silagy, C., Sinclair, M., Thomas, A. P., Robman, L. P., McCarty, C. A., Tikellis, G., and Taylor, H. R. Methodology of the VECAT study: vitamin E intervention in cataract and age-related maculopathy. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1999;6(3):195-208. View abstract.

Gaziano JM, Manson JE Ridker PM Buring JE Hennekens CH. Beta carotene therapy, for chronic stable angina. Circulation 1990;82(Suppl III):201.

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Gerber, M., Astre, C., Segala, C., Saintot, M., Scali, J., Simony-Lafontaine, J., Grenier, J., and Pujol, H. Oxidant-antioxidant status alterations in cancer patients: relationship to tumor progression. J.Nutr. 1996;126(4 Suppl):1201S-1207S. View abstract.

Gey, K. F. and Puska, P. Plasma vitamins E and A inversely correlated to mortality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1989;570:268-282. View abstract.

Gey, K. F., Moser, U. K., Jordan, P., Stahelin, H. B., Eichholzer, M., and Ludin, E. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease at suboptimal plasma concentrations of essential antioxidants: an epidemiological update with special attention to carotene and vitamin C. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1993;57(5 Suppl):787S-797S. View abstract.

Gey, K. F., Puska, P., Jordan, P., and Moser, U. K. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1991;53(1 Suppl):326S-334S. View abstract.

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Gillilan, R. E., Mondell, B., and Warbasse, J. R. Quantitative evaluation of vitamin E in the treatment of angina pectoris. Am.Heart J 1977;93(4):444-449. View abstract.

Glass GV. Primary secondary and metanalysis of research. Educ Res 1976;5(3):8.

Gogos, C. A., Ginopoulos, P., Salsa, B., Apostolidou, E., Zoumbos, N. C., and Kalfarentzos, F. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids plus vitamin E restore immunodeficiency and prolong survival for severely ill patients with generalized malignancy: a randomized control trial. Cancer 1-15-1998;82(2):395-402. View abstract.

Goodman, G. E., Thornquist, M. D., Balmes, J., Cullen, M. R., Meyskens, F. L., Jr., Omenn, G. S., Valanis, B., and Williams, J. H., Jr. The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial: incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping beta-carotene and retinol supplements. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 12-1-2004;96(23):1743-1750. View abstract.

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Graf, M., Ecker, D., Horowski, R., Kramer, B., Riederer, P., Gerlach, M., Hager, C., Ludolph, A. C., Becker, G., Osterhage, J., Jost, W. H., Schrank, B., Stein, C., Kostopulos, P., Lubik, S., Wekwerth, K., Dengler, R., Troeger, M., Wuerz, A., Hoge, A., Schrader, C., Schimke, N., Krampfl, K., Petri, S., Zierz, S., Eger, K., Neudecker, S., Traufeller, K., Sievert, M., Neundorfer, B., and Hecht, M. High dose vitamin E therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as add-on therapy to riluzole: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Neural Transm. 2005;112(5):649-660. View abstract.

Gray, B., Swick, J., and Ronnenberg, A. G. Vitamin E and adiponectin: proposed mechanism for vitamin E-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity. Nutr.Rev. 2011;69(3):155-161. View abstract.

Green, D., Chambers, M. E., and Sugden, D. A. Does subtype of developmental coordination disorder count: is there a differential effect on outcome following intervention? Hum.Mov Sci. 2008;27(2):363-382. View abstract.

Greenberg, E. R., Baron, J. A., Stukel, T. A., Stevens, M. M., Mandel, J. S., Spencer, S. K., Elias, P. M., Lowe, N., Nierenberg, D. W., Bayrd, G., and . A clinical trial of beta carotene to prevent basal-cell and squamous-cell cancers of the skin. The Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. N.Engl.J.Med. 9-20-1990;323(12):789-795. View abstract.

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Gridley, G., McLaughlin, J. K., Block, G., Blot, W. J., Winn, D. M., Greenberg, R. S., Schoenberg, J. B., Preston-Martin, S., Austin, D. F., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. Diet and oral and pharyngeal cancer among blacks. Nutr.Cancer 1990;14(3-4):219-225. View abstract.

Grieger, J. A., Nowson, C. A., Jarman, H. F., Malon, R., and Ackland, L. M. Multivitamin supplementation improves nutritional status and bone quality in aged care residents. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;63(4):558-565. View abstract.

Gritz, D. C., Srinivasan, M., Smith, S. D., Kim, U., Lietman, T. M., Wilkins, J. H., Priyadharshini, B., John, R. K., Aravind, S., Prajna, N. V., Duraisami, Thulasiraj R., and Whitcher, J. P. The Antioxidants in Prevention of Cataracts Study: effects of antioxidant supplements on cataract progression in South India. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90(7):847-851. View abstract.

Grodstein, F., Chen, J., and Willett, W. C. High-dose antioxidant supplements and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2003;77(4):975-984. View abstract.

Groenbaek, K., Friis, H., Hansen, M., Ring-Larsen, H., and Krarup, H. B. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;18(9):985-989. View abstract.

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Gueguen, S., Pirollet, P., Leroy, P., Guilland, J. C., Arnaud, J., Paille, F., Siest, G., Visvikis, S., Hercberg, S., and Herbeth, B. Changes in serum retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, carotenoids, xinc and selenium after micronutrient supplementation during alcohol rehabilitation. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2003;22(4):303-310. View abstract.

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Hercberg, S., Kesse-Guyot, E., Druesne-Pecollo, N., Touvier, M., Favier, A., Latino-Martel, P., Briancon, S., and Galan, P. Incidence of cancers, ischemic cardiovascular diseases and mortality during 5-year follow-up after stopping antioxidant vitamins and minerals supplements: a postintervention follow-up in the SU.VI.MAX Study. Int.J.Cancer 10-15-2010;127(8):1875-1881. View abstract.

Hino, K., Murakami, Y., Nagai, A., Kitase, A., Hara, Y., Furutani, T., Ren, F., Yamaguchi, Y., Yutoku, K., Yamashita, S., Okuda, M., Okita, M., and Okita, K. Alpha-tocopherol [corrected] and ascorbic acid attenuates the ribavirin [corrected] induced decrease of eicosapentaenoic acid in erythrocyte membrane in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(8):1269-1275. View abstract.

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Hodis, H. N., Mack, W. J., LaBree, L., Mahrer, P. R., Sevanian, A., Liu, C. R., Liu, C. H., Hwang, J., Selzer, R. H., and Azen, S. P. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in healthy individuals reduces low-density lipoprotein oxidation but not atherosclerosis: the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS). Circulation 9-17-2002;106(12):1453-1459. View abstract.

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Huang, H. Y., Caballero, B., Chang, S., Alberg, A. J., Semba, R. D., Schneyer, C. R., Wilson, R. F., Cheng, T. Y., Vassy, J., Prokopowicz, G., Barnes, G. J., and Bass, E. B. The efficacy and safety of multivitamin and mineral supplement use to prevent cancer and chronic disease in adults: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference. Ann.Intern.Med. 9-5-2006;145(5):372-385. View abstract.

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Ideo, G., Bellobuono, A., Tempini, S., Mondazzi, L., Airoldi, A., Benetti, G., Bissoli, F., Cestari, C., Colombo, E., Del, Poggio P., Fracassetti, O., Lazzaroni, S., Marelli, A., Paris, B., Prada, A., Rainer, E., and Roffi, L. Antioxidant drugs combined with alpha-interferon in chronic hepatitis C not responsive to alpha-interferon alone: a randomized, multicentre study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;11(11):1203-1207. View abstract.

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Jansen, M. C., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Buzina, R., Fidanza, F., Menotti, A., Blackburn, H., Nissinen, A. M., Kok, F. J., and Kromhout, D. Dietary fiber and plant foods in relation to colorectal cancer mortality: the Seven Countries Study. Int.J.Cancer 4-12-1999;81(2):174-179. View abstract.

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Laurin, D., Masaki, K. H., Foley, D. J., White, L. R., and Launer, L. J. Midlife dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of late-life incident dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Am.J.Epidemiol. 5-15-2004;159(10):959-967. View abstract.

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Lehtinen, M., Luostarinen, T., Youngman, L. D., Anttila, T., Dillner, J., Hakulinen, T., Koskela, P., Lenner, P., and Hallmans, G. Low levels of serum vitamins A and E in blood and subsequent risk for cervical cancer: interaction with HPV seropositivity. Nutr.Cancer 1999;34(2):229-234. View abstract.

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Li, B., Taylor, P. R., Li, J. Y., Dawsey, S. M., Wang, W., Tangrea, J. A., Liu, B. Q., Ershow, A. G., Zheng, S. F., Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., and . Linxian nutrition intervention trials. Design, methods, participant characteristics, and compliance. Ann Epidemiol. 1993;3(6):577-585. View abstract.

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Li, H., Li, H. Q., Wang, Y., Xu, H. X., Fan, W. T., Wang, M. L., Sun, P. H., and Xie, X. Y. An intervention study to prevent gastric cancer by micro-selenium and large dose of allitridum. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 2004;117(8):1155-1160. View abstract.

Li, J. Y., Taylor, P. R., Li, B., Dawsey, S., Wang, G. Q., Ershow, A. G., Guo, W., Liu, S. F., Yang, C. S., Shen, Q., and . Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: multiple vitamin/mineral supplementation, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality among adults with esophageal dysplasia. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 9-15-1993;85(18):1492-1498. View abstract.

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Li, W., Zhu, Y., Yan, X., Zhang, Q., Li, X., Ni, Z., Shen, Z., Yao, H., and Zhu, J. [The prevention of primary liver cancer by selenium in high risk populations]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 2000;34(6):336-338. View abstract.

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Lin, J., Cook, N. R., Albert, C., Zaharris, E., Gaziano, J. M., Van, Denburgh M., Buring, J. E., and Manson, J. E. Vitamins C and E and beta carotene supplementation and cancer risk: a randomized controlled trial. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 1-7-2009;101(1):14-23. View abstract.

Lindor, K. D., Kowdley, K. V., Heathcote, E. J., Harrison, M. E., Jorgensen, R., Angulo, P., Lymp, J. F., Burgart, L., and Colin, P. Ursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a randomized trial. Hepatology 2004;39(3):770-778. View abstract.

Liu, B. A., McGeer, A., McArthur, M. A., Simor, A. E., Aghdassi, E., Davis, L., and Allard, J. P. Effect of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on episodes of infection in nursing home residents: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 2007;55(1):35-42. View abstract.

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Lockwood, K., Moesgaard, S., Hanioka, T., and Folkers, K. Apparent partial remission of breast cancer in 'high risk' patients supplemented with nutritional antioxidants, essential fatty acids and coenzyme Q10. Mol.Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s231-s240. View abstract.

Loguercio, C., Andreone, P., Brisc, C., Brisc, M. C., Bugianesi, E., Chiaramonte, M., Cursaro, C., Danila, M., de, Sio, I, Floreani, A., Freni, M. A., Grieco, A., Groppo, M., Lazzari, R., Lobello, S., Lorefice, E., Margotti, M., Miele, L., Milani, S., Okolicsanyi, L., Palasciano, G., Portincasa, P., Saltarelli, P., Smedile, A., Somalvico, F., Spadaro, A., Sporea, I., Sorrentino, P., Vecchione, R., Tuccillo, C., Del Vecchio, Blanco C., and Federico, A. Silybin combined with phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 5-1-2012;52(9):1658-1665. View abstract.

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Longnecker, M. P., Martin-Moreno, J. M., Knekt, P., Nomura, A. M., Schober, S. E., Stahelin, H. B., Wald, N. J., Gey, K. F., and Willett, W. C. Serum alpha-tocopherol concentration in relation to subsequent colorectal cancer: pooled data from five cohorts. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 3-18-1992;84(6):430-435. View abstract.

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Malila, N., Taylor, P. R., Virtanen, M. J., Korhonen, P., Huttunen, J. K., Albanes, D., and Virtamo, J. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on gastric cancer incidence in male smokers (ATBC Study, Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2002;13(7):617-623. View abstract.

Malila, N., Virtamo, J., Virtanen, M., Pietinen, P., Albanes, D., and Teppo, L. Dietary and serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and retinol, and risk for colorectal cancer in male smokers. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;56(7):615-621. View abstract.

Manders, M., de Groot, L. C., van Staveren, W. A., Wouters-Wesseling, W., Mulders, A. J., Schols, J. M., and Hoefnagels, W. H. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review. J Gerontol.A Biol.Sci Med Sci 2004;59(10):1041-1049. View abstract.

Mann, J. F., Lonn, E. M., Yi, Q., Gerstein, H. C., Hoogwerf, B. J., Pogue, J., Bosch, J., Dagenais, G. R., and Yusuf, S. Effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular outcomes in people with mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency: results of the HOPE study. Kidney Int. 2004;65(4):1375-1380. View abstract.

Manny, T., Pettus, J., Hemal, A., Marks, M., and Mirzazadeh, M. Penile sclerosing lipogranulomas and disfigurement from use of "1Super Extenze" among Laotian immigrants. J.Sex Med. 2011;8(12):3505-3510. View abstract.

Manuel, Y. Keenoy, Vinckx, M., Vertommen, J., Van, Gaal L., and De, Leeuw, I. Impact of Vitamin E supplementation on lipoprotein peroxidation and composition in Type 1 diabetic patients treated with Atorvastatin. Atherosclerosis 2004;175(2):369-376. View abstract.

Manzano, D., Aguirre, A., Gardeazabal, J., Eizaguirre, X., and Diaz Perez, J. L. Allergic contact dermatitis from tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and retinol palmitate (vitamin A) in a moisturizing cream. Contact Dermatitis 1994;31(5):324. View abstract.

Maraini, G., Williams, S. L., Sperduto, R. D., Ferris, F., Milton, R. C., Clemons, T. E., Rosmini, F., and Ferrigno, L. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial of multivitamin supplementation for age-related lens opacities. Clinical trial of nutritional supplements and age-related cataract report no. 3. Ophthalmology 2008;115(4):599-607. View abstract.

Marchioli, R. Antioxidant vitamins and prevention of cardiovascular disease: laboratory, epidemiological and clinical trial data. Pharmacol.Res 1999;40(3):227-238. View abstract.

Marik, P. E. and Flemmer, M. Do dietary supplements have beneficial health effects in industrialized nations: what is the evidence? JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2012;36(2):159-168. View abstract.

Mark, S. D., Wang, W., Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., Li, J. Y., Taylor, P. R., Wang, G. Q., Guo, W., Dawsey, S. M., Li, B., and Blot, W. J. Lowered risks of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease after vitamin/mineral supplementation: the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trial. Am.J.Epidemiol. 4-1-1996;143(7):658-664. View abstract.

Marniemi, J., Jarvisalo, J., Toikka, T., Raiha, I., Ahotupa, M., and Sourander, L. Blood vitamins, mineral elements and inflammation markers as risk factors of vascular and non-vascular disease mortality in an elderly population. Int.J.Epidemiol. 1998;27(5):799-807. View abstract.

Marras, C., Lang, A. E., Oakes, D., McDermott, M. P., Kieburtz, K., Shoulson, I., Tanner, C. M., and Fahn, S. High-dosage vitamin E supplementation and all-cause mortality. Ann.Intern.Med. 7-19-2005;143(2):152-153. View abstract.

Marras, C., McDermott, M. P., Rochon, P. A., Tanner, C. M., Naglie, G., Rudolph, A., and Lang, A. E. Survival in Parkinson disease: thirteen-year follow-up of the DATATOP cohort. Neurology 1-11-2005;64(1):87-93. View abstract.

Martin-Jimenez, M., Diaz-Rubio, E., Gonzalez Larriba, J. L., and Sangro, B. Failure of high-dose tocopherol to prevent alopecia induced by doxorubicin. N.Engl.J.Med. 10-2-1986;315(14):894-895. View abstract.

Martinoli, L., Di, Felice M., Seghieri, G., Ciuti, M., De Giorgio, L. A., Fazzini, A., Gori, R., Anichini, R., and Franconi, F. Plasma retinol and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: their relationship to microvascular complications. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 1993;63(2):87-92. View abstract.

Mas, E., Dupuy, A. M., Artero, S., Portet, F., Cristol, J. P., Ritchie, K., and Touchon, J. Functional Vitamin E deficiency in ApoE4 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement.Geriatr.Cogn Disord. 2006;21(3):198-204. View abstract.

Mathew, M. C., Ervin, A. M., Tao, J., and Davis, R. M. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;6:CD004567. View abstract.

Maxwell, C. J., Hicks, M. S., Hogan, D. B., Basran, J., and Ebly, E. M. Supplemental use of antioxidant vitamins and subsequent risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Dement.Geriatr.Cogn Disord. 2005;20(1):45-51. View abstract.

Mayer-Davis, E. J., Bell, R. A., Reboussin, B. A., Rushing, J., Marshall, J. A., and Hamman, R. F. Antioxidant nutrient intake and diabetic retinopathy: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Ophthalmology 1998;105(12):2264-2270. View abstract.

McCance, D. R., Holmes, V. A., Maresh, M. J., Patterson, C. C., Walker, J. D., Pearson, D. W., and Young, I. S. Vitamins C and E for prevention of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes (DAPIT): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 7-24-2010;376(9737):259-266. View abstract.

McGinness, J. E., Grossie, B., Jr., Proctor, P. H., Benjamin, R. S., Gulati, O. P., and Hokanson, J. A. Effect of dose schedule of vitamin E and hydroxethylruticide on intestinal toxicity induced by adriamycin. Physiol Chem.Phys.Med.NMR 1986;18(1):17-24. View abstract.

McNeil, J. J., Robman, L., Tikellis, G., Sinclair, M. I., McCarty, C. A., and Taylor, H. R. Vitamin E supplementation and cataract: randomized controlled trial. Ophthalmology 2004;111(1):75-84. View abstract.

Melhorn, D. K. and Gross, S. Vitamin E-dependent anemia in the premature infant. II. Relationships between gestational age and absorption of vitamin E. J.Pediatr. 1971;79(4):581-588. View abstract.

Menkes, M. S., Comstock, G. W., Vuilleumier, J. P., Helsing, K. J., Rider, A. A., and Brookmeyer, R. Serum beta-carotene, vitamins A and E, selenium, and the risk of lung cancer. N.Engl.J.Med. 11-13-1986;315(20):1250-1254. View abstract.

Meraji, S., Abuja, P. M., Hayn, M., Kostner, G. M., Morris, R., Oraii, S., Tatzber, F., Wonisch, W., Zechner, R., and Gey, K. F. Relationship between classic risk factors, plasma antioxidants and indicators of oxidant stress in angina pectoris (AP) in Tehran. Atherosclerosis 2000;150(2):403-412. View abstract.

Merat, S., Malekzadeh, R., Sohrabi, M. R., Sotoudeh, M., Rakhshani, N., Sohrabpour, A. A., and Naserimoghadam, S. Probucol in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a double-blind randomized controlled study. J.Hepatol. 2003;38(4):414-418. View abstract.

Meydani, S. N., Han, S. N., and Hamer, D. H. Vitamin E and respiratory infection in the elderly. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2004;1031:214-222. View abstract.

Mezey, E., Potter, J. J., Rennie-Tankersley, L., Caballeria, J., and Pares, A. A randomized placebo controlled trial of vitamin E for alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2004;40(1):40-46. View abstract.

Mezzetti, M., La, Vecchia C., Decarli, A., Boyle, P., Talamini, R., and Franceschi, S. Population attributable risk for breast cancer: diet, nutrition, and physical exercise. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 3-4-1998;90(5):389-394. View abstract.

Millen, A. E., Gruber, M., Klein, R., Klein, B. E., Palta, M., and Mares, J. A. Relations of serum ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol to diabetic retinopathy in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am.J Epidemiol. 8-1-2003;158(3):225-233. View abstract.

Millen, A. E., Klein, R., Folsom, A. R., Stevens, J., Palta, M., and Mares, J. A. Relation between intake of vitamins C and E and risk of diabetic retinopathy in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2004;79(5):865-873. View abstract.

Milman, U., Blum, S., Shapira, C., Aronson, D., Miller-Lotan, R., Anbinder, Y., Alshiek, J., Bennett, L., Kostenko, M., Landau, M., Keidar, S., Levy, Y., Khemlin, A., Radan, A., and Levy, A. P. Vitamin E supplementation reduces cardiovascular events in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype: a prospective double-blinded clinical trial. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 2008;28(2):341-347. View abstract.

Misirlioglu, C. H., Demirkasimoglu, T., Kucukplakci, B., Sanri, E., and Altundag, K. Pentoxifylline and alpha-tocopherol in prevention of radiation-induced lung toxicity in patients with lung cancer. Med.Oncol. 2007;24(3):308-311. View abstract.

Mitchinson, M. J., Stephens, N. G., Parsons, A., Bligh, E., Schofield, P. M., and Brown, M. J. Mortality in the CHAOS trial. Lancet 1-30-1999;353(9150):381-382. View abstract.

Miyake, Y., Fukushima, W., Tanaka, K., Sasaki, S., Kiyohara, C., Tsuboi, Y., Yamada, T., Oeda, T., Miki, T., Kawamura, N., Sakae, N., Fukuyama, H., Hirota, Y., and Nagai, M. Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan. Eur.J.Neurol. 2011;18(1):106-113. View abstract.

Montano Velazquez, B. B., Jauregui-Renaud, K., Banuelos Arias, Adel C., Ayala, J. C., Martinez, M. D., Campillo, Navarrete R., Rosalia, I. S., Salazar, Mdel R., Serrano, H. A., Mondragon, A. O., and Perez, R. L. Vitamin E effects on nasal symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Ann.Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;96(1):45-50. View abstract.

Mooney, L. A., Madsen, A. M., Tang, D., Orjuela, M. A., Tsai, W. Y., Garduno, E. R., and Perera, F. P. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation reduces benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts and potential cancer risk in female smokers. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(1):237-242. View abstract.

Moorman, P. G., Ricciuti, M. F., Millikan, R. C., and Newman, B. Vitamin supplement use and breast cancer in a North Carolina population. Public Health Nutr 2001;4(3):821-827. View abstract.

Morris, C. R. and Agin, M. C. Syndrome of allergy, apraxia, and malabsorption: characterization of a neurodevelopmental phenotype that responds to omega 3 and vitamin E supplementation. Altern.Ther Health Med. 2009;15(4):34-43. View abstract.

Morris, D. L., Kritchevsky, S. B., and Davis, C. E. Serum carotenoids and coronary heart disease. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial and Follow-up Study. JAMA 11-9-1994;272(18):1439-1441. View abstract.

Morris, M. C. Nutritional determinants of cognitive aging and dementia. Proc.Nutr.Soc. 2012;71(1):1-13. View abstract.

Morris, M. C., Evans, D. A., Bienias, J. L., Tangney, C. C., Bennett, D. A., Aggarwal, N., Wilson, R. S., and Scherr, P. A. Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease in a biracial community study. JAMA 6-26-2002;287(24):3230-3237. View abstract.

Morrissey, P. A. and Sheehy, P. J. Optimal nutrition: vitamin E. Proc.Nutr.Soc. 1999;58(2):459-468. View abstract.

Mortality in DATATOP: a multicenter trial in early Parkinson's disease. Parkinson Study Group. Ann.Neurol. 1998;43(3):318-325. View abstract.

Moyad, M. A. Conventional and alternative medical advice for cold and flu prevention: what should be recommended and what should be avoided? Urol.Nurs. 2009;29(6):455-458. View abstract.

MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 7-6-2002;360(9326):7-22. View abstract.

Munoz, N., Wahrendorf, J., Bang, L. J., Crespi, M., Thurnham, D. I., Day, N. E., Ji, Z. H., Grassi, A., Yan, L. W., Lin, L. G., and . No effect of riboflavine, retinol, and zinc on prevalence of precancerous lesions of oesophagus. Randomised double-blind intervention study in high-risk population of China. Lancet 7-20-1985;2(8447):111-114. View abstract.

Muntwyler, J., Hennekens, C. H., Manson, J. E., Buring, J. E., and Gaziano, J. M. Vitamin supplement use in a low-risk population of US male physicians and subsequent cardiovascular mortality. Arch.Intern.Med. 7-8-2002;162(13):1472-1476. View abstract.

Murakami, Y., Nagai, A., Kawakami, T., Hino, K., Kitase, A., Hara, Y., Okuda, M., Okita, K., and Okita, M. Vitamin E and C supplementation prevents decrease of eicosapentaenoic acid in mononuclear cells in chronic hepatitis C patients during combination therapy of interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin. Nutrition 2006;22(2):114-122. View abstract.

Musso, G., Cassader, M., Rosina, F., and Gambino, R. Impact of current treatments on liver disease, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Diabetologia 2012;55(4):885-904. View abstract.

Myung, S. K., Ju, W., Cho, B., Oh, S. W., Park, S. M., Koo, B. K., and Park, B. J. Efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2013;346:f10. View abstract.

Myung, S. K., Ju, W., Kim, S. C., and Kim, H. Vitamin or antioxidant intake (or serum level) and risk of cervical neoplasm: a meta-analysis. BJOG. 2011;118(11):1285-1291. View abstract.

Nakayama, A., Alladin, K. P., Igbokwe, O., and White, J. D. Systematic review: generating evidence-based guidelines on the concurrent use of dietary antioxidants and chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Cancer Invest 2011;29(10):655-667. View abstract.

Negri, E., La, Vecchia C., Franceschi, S., D'Avanzo, B., Talamini, R., Parpinel, M., Ferraroni, M., Filiberti, R., Montella, M., Falcini, F., Conti, E., and Decarli, A. Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 1-17-1996;65(2):140-144. View abstract.

Neupane, B., Walter, S. D., Krueger, P., Marrie, T., and Loeb, M. Predictors of inhospital mortality and re-hospitalization in older adults with community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective cohort study. BMC.Geriatr. 2010;10:22. View abstract.

Nguyen, T. T., Cox, C. S., Traber, D. L., Gasser, H., Redl, H., Schlag, G., and Herndon, D. N. Free radical activity and loss of plasma antioxidants, vitamin E, and sulfhydryl groups in patients with burns: the 1993 Moyer Award. J.Burn Care Rehabil. 1993;14(6):602-609. View abstract.

No author. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 7-6-2002;360(9326):23-33. View abstract.

No author. The alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene lung cancer prevention study: design, methods, participant characteristics, and compliance. The ATBC Cancer Prevention Study Group. Ann.Epidemiol. 1994;4(1):1-10. View abstract.

Nobili, V., Manco, M., Devito, R., Ciampalini, P., Piemonte, F., and Marcellini, M. Effect of vitamin E on aminotransferase levels and insulin resistance in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 2006;24(11-12):1553-1561. View abstract.

Nobili, V., Manco, M., Devito, R., Di, Ciommo, V, Comparcola, D., Sartorelli, M. R., Piemonte, F., Marcellini, M., and Angulo, P. Lifestyle intervention and antioxidant therapy in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, controlled trial. Hepatology 2008;48(1):119-128. View abstract.

Nojiri, S., Daida, H., Mokuno, H., Iwama, Y., Mae, K., Ushio, F., and Ueki, T. Association of serum antioxidant capacity with coronary artery disease in middle-aged men. Jpn.Heart J. 2001;42(6):677-690. View abstract.

Nomura, A. M., Stemmermann, G. N., Heilbrun, L. K., Salkeld, R. M., and Vuilleumier, J. P. Serum vitamin levels and the risk of cancer of specific sites in men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. Cancer Res. 1985;45(5):2369-2372. View abstract.

Nomura, A. M., Stemmermann, G. N., Lee, J., and Craft, N. E. Serum micronutrients and prostate cancer in Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(7):487-491. View abstract.

Nomura, A. M., Ziegler, R. G., Stemmermann, G. N., Chyou, P. H., and Craft, N. E. Serum micronutrients and upper aerodigestive tract cancer. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(6):407-412. View abstract.

Nouraie, M., Pietinen, P., Kamangar, F., Dawsey, S. M., Abnet, C. C., Albanes, D., Virtamo, J., and Taylor, P. R. Fruits, vegetables, and antioxidants and risk of gastric cancer among male smokers. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(9):2087-2092. View abstract.

Nussenblatt, R. B., Kim, J., Thompson, D. J., Davis, M. D., Chew, E., Ferris, F. L., and Buggage, R. Vitamin E in the treatment of uveitis-associated macular edema. Am.J.Ophthalmol. 2006;141(1):193-194. View abstract.

O'Brien, J. T. and Burns, A. Clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs: a revised (second) consensus statement from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25(8):997-1019. View abstract.

Odigwe, C. C., Smedslund, G., Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I., Anyanechi, C. C., and Krawinkel, M. B. Supplementary vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin for preventing kwashiorkor in preschool children in developing countries. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(4):CD008147. View abstract.

Ohrvall, M., Sundlof, G., and Vessby, B. Gamma, but not alpha, tocopherol levels in serum are reduced in coronary heart disease patients. J Intern.Med 1996;239(2):111-117. View abstract.

Okamoto, K., Kihira, T., Kobashi, G., Washio, M., Sasaki, S., Yokoyama, T., Miyake, Y., Sakamoto, N., Inaba, Y., and Nagai, M. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Japan. Neuroepidemiology 2009;32(4):251-256. View abstract.

Okuda, M., Bando, N., Terao, J., Sasaki, S., Sugiyama, S., Kunitsugu, I., and Hobara, T. Association of serum carotenoids and tocopherols with atopic diseases in Japanese children and adolescents. Pediatr.Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(4 Pt 2):e705-e710. View abstract.

Pacht, E. R., Diaz, P., Clanton, T., Hart, J., and Gadek, J. E. Serum vitamin E decreases in HIV-seropositive subjects over time. J.Lab Clin.Med. 1997;130(3):293-296. View abstract.

Palli, D., Russo, A., and Decarli, A. Dietary patterns, nutrient intake and gastric cancer in a high-risk area of Italy. Cancer Causes Control 2001;12(2):163-172. View abstract.

Pamuk, G. E. and Sonsuz, A. N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2003;18(10):1220-1221. View abstract.

Papadimitrakopoulou, V. A., Clayman, G. L., Shin, D. M., Myers, J. N., Gillenwater, A. M., Goepfert, H., El-Naggar, A. K., Lewin, J. S., Lippman, S. M., and Hong, W. K. Biochemoprevention for dysplastic lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Arch.Otolaryngol.Head Neck Surg. 1999;125(10):1083-1089. View abstract.

Papaioannou, D., Cooper, K. L., Carroll, C., Hind, D., Squires, H., Tappenden, P., and Logan, R. F. Antioxidants in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13(10):1085-1099. View abstract.

Papila C, Papila I Bilir M Cagatay T Yanardag H et al. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on natural killer cell activity in patients with solid tumors. Journal of BU On 1999;4:435-437.

Patel, B. P. and Hamadeh, M. J. Nutritional and exercise-based interventions in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Clin Nutr. 2009;28(6):604-617. View abstract.

Pathak, A. K., Bhutani, M., Guleria, R., Bal, S., Mohan, A., Mohanti, B. K., Sharma, A., Pathak, R., Bhardwaj, N. K., Prasad, K. N., and Kochupillai, V. Chemotherapy alone vs. chemotherapy plus high dose multiple antioxidants in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer. J Am.Coll.Nutr 2005;24(1):16-21. View abstract.

Peet, M., Laugharne, J., Rangarajan, N., and Reynolds, G. P. Tardive dyskinesia, lipid peroxidation, and sustained amelioration with vitamin E treatment. Int.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 1993;8(3):151-153. View abstract.

Penn, N. D., Purkins, L., Kelleher, J., Heatley, R. V., Mascie-Taylor, B. H., and Belfield, P. W. The effect of dietary supplementation with vitamins A, C and E on cell-mediated immune function in elderly long-stay patients: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1991;20(3):169-174. View abstract.

Perez, J. E., Macchiavelli, M., Leone, B. A., Romero, A., Rabinovich, M. G., Goldar, D., and Vallejo, C. High-dose alpha-tocopherol as a preventive of doxorubicin-induced alopecia. Cancer Treat.Rep. 1986;70(10):1213-1214. View abstract.

Perez, L., Heim, L., Sherzai, A., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., and Sherzai, A. Nutrition and vascular dementia. J.Nutr.Health Aging 2012;16(4):319-324. View abstract.

Pfeiffer, J. M., Askew, E. W., Roberts, D. E., Wood, S. M., Benson, J. E., Johnson, S. C., and Freedman, M. S. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on urine and blood markers of oxidative stress during extended moderate-altitude training. Wilderness.Environ.Med 1999;10(2):66-74. View abstract.

Pham, D. Q. and Plakogiannis, R. Vitamin E supplementation in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, tardive dyskinesia, and cataract: Part 2. Ann.Pharmacother. 2005;39(12):2065-2072. View abstract.

Pham, D. Q. and Plakogiannis, R. Vitamin E supplementation in cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention: Part 1. Ann.Pharmacother. 2005;39(11):1870-1878. View abstract.

Phelps, D. L., Rosenbaum, A. L., Isenberg, S. J., Leake, R. D., and Dorey, F. J. Tocopherol efficacy and safety for preventing retinopathy of prematurity: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. Pediatrics 1987;79(4):489-500. View abstract.

Piermarocchi, S., Saviano, S., Parisi, V., Tedeschi, M., Panozzo, G., Scarpa, G., Boschi, G., and Lo, Giudice G. Carotenoids in Age-related Maculopathy Italian Study (CARMIS): two-year results of a randomized study. Eur.J.Ophthalmol. 2012;22(2):216-225. View abstract.

Pike, J. and Chandra, R. K. Effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on immune indices in healthy elderly. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65(2):117-121. View abstract.

Plummer, M., Vivas, J., Lopez, G., Bravo, J. C., Peraza, S., Carillo, E., Cano, E., Castro, D., Andrade, O., Sanchez, V., Garcia, R., Buiatti, E., Aebischer, C., Franceschi, S., Oliver, W., and Munoz, N. Chemoprevention of precancerous gastric lesions with antioxidant vitamin supplementation: a randomized trial in a high-risk population. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 1-17-2007;99(2):137-146. View abstract.

Polyzos, N. P., Mauri, D., Tsappi, M., Tzioras, S., Kamposioras, K., Cortinovis, I., and Casazza, G. Combined vitamin C and E supplementation during pregnancy for preeclampsia prevention: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol.Surv. 2007;62(3):202-206. View abstract.

Poston, L., Briley, A. L., Seed, P. T., Kelly, F. J., and Shennan, A. H. Vitamin C and vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia (VIP trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 4-8-2006;367(9517):1145-1154. View abstract.

Poulter, J. M., White, W. F., and Dickerson, J. W. Ascorbic acid supplementation and five year survival rates in women with early breast cancer. Acta Vitaminol.Enzymol. 1984;6(3):175-182. View abstract.

Prieto Castro, R. M., Leva Vallejo, M. E., Regueiro Lopez, J. C., Anglada Curado, F. J., Alvarez, Kindelan J., and Requena Tapia, M. J. Combined treatment with vitamin E and colchicine in the early stages of Peyronie's disease. BJU.Int. 2003;91(6):522-524. View abstract.

Prince, M. I., Mitchison, H. C., Ashley, D., Burke, D. A., Edwards, N., Bramble, M. G., James, O. F., and Jones, D. E. Oral antioxidant supplementation for fatigue associated with primary biliary cirrhosis: results of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 2003;17(1):137-143. View abstract.

Pryor, J. P. and Farell, C. F. Controlled clinical trial of vitamin E in Peyronie's disease. Prog Reprod Biol 1983;9:41-45.

Rahimi, R., Nikfar, S., Rezaie, A., and Abdollahi, M. A meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of combined vitamin C and E supplementation in preeclamptic women. Hypertens.Pregnancy. 2009;28(4):417-434. View abstract.

Rajasekhar, D., Srinivasa Rao, P. V., Latheef, S. A., Saibaba, K. S., and Subramanyam, G. Association of serum antioxidants and risk of coronary heart disease in South Indian population. Indian J.Med.Sci. 2004;58(11):465-471. View abstract.

Ranganathan, L. N. and Ramaratnam, S. Vitamins for epilepsy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2005;(2):CD004304. View abstract.

Rapola, J. M., Virtamo, J., Haukka, J. K., Heinonen, O. P., Albanes, D., Taylor, P. R., and Huttunen, J. K. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JAMA 3-6-1996;275(9):693-698. View abstract.

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