How Do Thymidine Phosphorylase Inhibitors Work?

Reviewed on 11/2/2021

HOW DO THYMIDINE PHOSPHORYLASE INHIBITORS WORK?

Thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors are a class of drugs used to treat colon (large intestine) or rectal cancer, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body in people who have already been treated with other chemotherapy medications or cannot receive chemotherapy medications.

Thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors work by inhibiting or blocking an enzyme called “thymidine phosphorylase,” a key enzyme in purine metabolism (chemical compounds that form uric acid when metabolized) and pyrimidine nucleoside salvage pathway. It catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of thymidine and thereby generates thymine and 2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate. It is also identified as the angiogenic platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, which stimulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels) and plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis.

This enzyme is expressed at higher levels in a wide variety of solid tumors than in the adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. Thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors suppress tumor growth by inhibiting this enzyme, increasing the proportion of apoptotic cells (a genetically regulated form of cell death) and to a certain extent inhibiting angiogenesis.

Thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors are administered via oral route.

Thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors work in the following ways:

  • They belong to a class of medications called "thymidine-based nucleoside analogs" that work by stopping the growth of cancer cells. 
  • In addition, they help in slowing the breakdown of trifluridine in the body.

HOW ARE THYMIDINE PHOSPHORYLASE INHIBITORS USED?

Thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors are used to treat conditions such as:

SLIDESHOW

Digestive Disorders: Common Misconceptions See Slideshow

WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS OF THYMIDINE PHOSPHORYLASE INHIBITORS?

Some of the common side effects include:

Other rare side effects include:

Information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.

WHAT ARE NAMES OF THYMIDINE PHOSPHORYLASE INHIBITORS?

Generic and brand names of thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors include:

References
https://reference.medscape.com/drugs/thymidine-phosphorylase-inhibitors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10213500/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16375757/

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a615049.html

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a615049.html

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