Thymus Extract

Other Name(s):

Complexe de Peptides Thymiques, Extracto de Timo, Extrait de Thymus, Extrait Thymique, Polypeptides Dérivés de Thymus, Predigested Thymus Extract, Protéine Thymique, Pure Thymic Extract, Thymic Extract, Thymic Peptide, Thymic Protein, Thymic Protein A, Thymomodulin, Thymosin, Thymosine, Thymostimulin, Thymostimuline, Thymus, Thymus Acid Lysate Derivative, Thymus Complex, Thymus Concentrate, Thymus-Derived Polypeptides, Thymus Factors, Thymus Polypeptides, Thymus Substance.


Thymus extract is a chemical that can be man-made or produced from the glands of cows.

Thymus extract is used for infectious diseases including recurrent respiratory infections, colds, flu, H1N1 “swine” flu, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), mononucleosis, herpes and shingles, sinusitis, and AIDS/HIV. It is also used for asthma, hay fever, food allergies, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Other uses include maintaining white cell production in cancer patients treated with radiation or chemotherapy, and preventing the effects of aging.

The quality and potency of thymus extract products can vary greatly.

How does it work?

Thymus extract works by improving or boosting the immune system.


Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for...

  • Hay fever. There is some evidence that treatment for 4 months with calf thymus extract might reduce the number of allergic episodes in people with hay fever.
  • Asthma. Taking calf thymus extract may reduce acute asthma attacks in children with asthma for up to one year.
  • Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy). Early research suggests that taking calf thymus extract along with usual therapy improves the ability to exercise, heart function, symptoms, and survival in people with a specific heart disease called cardiomyopathy.
  • Food allergies. Taking calf thymus extract while following an elimination diet might prevent allergic reactions to food.
  • Lung infections. Taking calf thymus extract by mouth seems to reduce the number of infections or coughing attacks in patients who get repeat respiratory infections. Calf thymus extract alone, or in combination with vaccine, seems to be more effective than vaccine alone or antibiotics in reducing the number and duration of infections in adults with recurrent respiratory infections.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Arthritis.
  • Cancer.
  • Herpes.
  • Shingles.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of thymus extract for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Thymus extract is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth appropriately.

Because thymus can come from animals, there is concern about possible contamination with diseased animal parts. Any products made from contaminated or diseased organs might present a human health hazard. However, so far, there are no reports of disease transmission to humans due to use of contaminated thymus extract.


What Is Asthma? Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking thymus extract if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Weakened immune system: People who have a weakened immune system (HIV/AIDS patients, for example) or people who are taking drugs to weaken their immune system (organ transplant recipients, for example) have a higher risk of infection. These people should avoid thymus extract products unless these products are certified germ-free.


Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Medications that decrease the immune system can increase your chances of getting sick. Thymus extract is made from animals. There is some concern that products made from animals might contain harmful diseases and cause infections. Taking medications that decrease the immune system along with thymus extract might increase your chances of getting sick. Do not take thymus extract if you are taking medications that decrease the immune system.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • A typical daily dose is 750 mg of crude thymus polypeptide fraction or 120 mg of pure thymus polypetides (thymomodulin).

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Aleksandrovskii, IuA and Chekhonin, V. P. [Clinical and immunological studies in borderline mental disorders: problems and solutions]. Vestn.Ross.Akad.Med Nauk 1999;(7):12-15. View abstract.

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Aleksandrowicz, J., Blicharski, J., Cichocki, T., Dobrowolski, J., Kwiatkowski, A., Lisiewicz, J., Sasiadek, U., Skotnicki, A. B., and Wazewska-Czyzewska, M. [Effect of calf thymus extracts on the surface structure and the lysosomal apparatus of lymphocytes in patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia]. Acta Haematol.Pol. 1976;7(3):179-188. View abstract.

Aleksandrowicz, J., Blicharski, J., Cichocki, T., Dobrowolski, J., Kwiatkowski, A., Lisiewicz, J., Sasiadek, U., Skotnicki, A. B., and Wazewska-Czyzewska, M. The effect of calf thymus extract on surface structure and lysosomal apparatus in lymphocytes of patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia. Haematologica 1977;62(3):267-278. View abstract.

Aleksandrowicz, J., Szmigiel, Z., Czarnecki, J., Turowski, G., and Skotnicki, A. B. [An attempt of immunological stimulation of patients with proliferative and applastic diseases of the haematopoietic system by means of calf's thymus extract (TFX) (author's transl)]. Przegl.Lek. 1975;32(2):277-279. View abstract.

Alexandrov, V. A., Bespalov, V. G., Morozov, V. G., Khavinson, V. K., and Anisimov, V. N. Study of the post-natal effects of chemopreventive agents on ethylnitrosourea-induced transplacental carcinogenesis in rats. II. Influence of low-molecular-weight polypeptide factors from the thymus, pineal gland, bone marrow, anterior hypothalamus, brain cortex and brain white substance. Carcinogenesis 1996;17(9):1931-1934. View abstract.

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Azizi, E., Brenner, H. J., and Shoham, J. Postsurgical adjuvant treatment of malignant melanoma patients by the thymic factor thymostimulin. Arzneimittelforschung 1984;34(9):1043-1047. View abstract.

Balabanova, R. M. and Barakat, B. [Immunomodulating therapy of rheumatoid arthritis]. Revmatologiia.(Mosk) 1990;(3):38-44. View abstract.

Banfi, F., Ferrari, M., and Rusconi, A. [Clinical results of the associated use of a thymus extract (Leukotrophin) as an anti-leukopenic agent in radiotherapy and chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases]. Minerva Med 9-8-1970;61(72):3818-3824. View abstract.

Barcellini, W., Meroni, P. L., Borghi, M. O., Frasca, D., Perego, R., Doria, G., and Zanussi, C. In vivo immunopotentiating activity of thymopentin in aging humans: modulation of IL-2 receptor expression. Clin Immunol.Immunopathol. 1988;48(2):140-149. View abstract.

Bassam, B. and Balabanova, R. M. [The efficacy of immunomodulating therapy in rheumatoid arthritis]. Ter.Arkh. 1990;62(5):32-35. View abstract.

Beall, G., Kruger, S., Morales, F., Imagawa, D., Goldsmith, J. A., Fisher, D., Steinberg, J., Phair, J., Whaling, S., and Bitran, J. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of thymostimulin in symptomatic HIV-infected patients. AIDS 1990;4(7):679-681. View abstract.

Bernasconi, C. [Clinical study of the therapeutic use of a thymus extract with antileukopenic action]. Minerva Med 9-8-1970;61(72):3796-3804. View abstract.

Bernengo, M. G., Capella, G., de Matteis, A., Tovo, P. A., and Zina, G. The in vitro effect of a calf thymus extract on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of sixty-six melanoma patients. Clin Exp Immunol 1979;36(2):279-284. View abstract.

Bernengo, M. G., de Matteis, A., Meregalli, M., Capella, G., and Zina, G. The in vitro effect of a calf thymus extract on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with warts. Br J Dermatol 1980;102(1):11-16. View abstract.

Beuth, J., Schierholz, J. M., and Mayer, G. Immunomodulating and antimetastatic activity of thymic peptides in BALB/c mice. Anticancer Res 1999;19(4B):2993-2995. View abstract.

Biriukov, A. V., Stenina, M. A., Anan'eva, L. P., Skripnik, A. I., and Cheredeev, A. N. [Clinical effectiveness of the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with preparations of the methylxanthine group and T-activin]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 1987;65(1):107-111. View abstract.

Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Gentilini, O., Fortis, C., Consogno, G., and Di, Carlo, V. Thymopentin modulates Th1 and Th2 cytokine response and host survival in experimental injury. J Surg.Res 1996;62(2):197-200. View abstract.

Brauer, R., Egg, A. J., Henzgen, S., Kriegsmann, J., and Thoss, K. The effects of immunomodulatory thymic and splenic peptides and cyclosporin A on antigen-induced arthritis in the rat. Agents Actions 1993;38 Spec No:C95-C97. View abstract.

Bulanova, A. A. and Akhanzaripov, Z. A. [Immunotherapy for the treatment of acute appendicitis in children]. Khirurgiia (Mosk) 1994;(8):34-36. View abstract.

Cahn, P., Perez, H., Casiroo, A., Felippini, C., Valdez, I., and Muchnik, G. [Use of thymostimulin in immunodeficiency associated to HIV]. Medicina (B Aires) 1988;48(5):555-556. View abstract.

Canovas, Fernandez A., Alonso, Alonso J., Gonzalez, de Zarate, Garcia, Masdevall, Rinon Martinez-Gallo, M., and Aguirre, Errasti C. [The use of thymostimulin in lymphoma and myeloma patients]. An.Med Interna 1991;8(2):69-73. View abstract.

Canovas, Fernandez A., Gonzalez, de Zarate, Alonso, Alonso J., and Aguirre, Errasti C. [Thymostimulin as an adjuvant to antineoplastic chemotherapy. Experience with patients with myeloma and lymphoma]. Rev Clin Esp. 1988;183(7):340-343. View abstract.

Carco, F. and Guazzotti, G. [Therapeutic use of thymostimulin in HIV-seropositive subjects and with lymphadenopathy syndrome]. Recenti Prog.Med 1993;84(11):756-764. View abstract.

Casale, G., Zurita, I. E., Colombo, M., and de Nicola, P. Urinary tract infections in the aged: improvement with thymostimulin. Arzneimittelforschung 1983;33(6):889-890. View abstract.

Cazzola, P., Mazzanti, P., and Kouttab, N. M. Update and future perspectives of a thymic biological response modifier (Thymomodulin). Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 1987;9(2-3):195-216. View abstract.

Chachoua, A., Green, M. D., Valentine, F., and Muggia, F. M. Phase I/II trial of thymostimulin in opportunistic infections of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Cancer Invest 1989;7(3):225-229. View abstract.

Chien, R. N. and Liaw, Y. F. Thymalfasin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Expert.Rev Anti.Infect.Ther 2004;2(1):9-16. View abstract.

Chisesi, T., Capnist, G., Rancan, L., Pellizzari, G., and Vespignani, M. The effect of thymic substances on T circulating cells of patients treated for Hodgkin's disease. J Biol Regul.Homeost.Agents 1988;2(4):193-198. View abstract.

Christ, H. W. [Immunomodulating therapy of psoriasis vulgaris]. Med Klin (Munich) 10-15-1999;94 Suppl 3:90-92. View abstract.

Cianciara, J. and Laskus, T. Thymic factor X treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 1992;16(6):1507-1508. View abstract.

Cianciara, J., Babiuch, L., Gorska, E., and Kassur, B. [Immunotherapy of chronic active hepatitis (HBsAg+) with calf thymus extract (TFX-Polfa). Clinical evaluation]. Pol.Tyg.Lek. 8-13-1984;39(33):1097-1101. View abstract.

Ciecko-Michalska, I., Bogdal, J., and Turowski, G. [Primary sclerosing cholangitis--tests with ubiquitin treatment. Case report]. Przegl.Lek. 1998;55(5):298-300. View abstract.

Civeira, M. P., Castilla, A., Morte, S., Serrano, M., and Prieto, J. A pilot study of thymus extract in chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 1989;3(4):395-401. View abstract.

Corridori, S., Trespi, G., Baldini, E., Renzetti, I., and Calderon, W. [Effects of a treatment with a thymus extract (thymostimulin) in acute viral hepatitis B in drug-dependent patients]. Boll.Ist.Sieroter.Milan 1984;63(6):519-528. View abstract.

Coucourde, F. and Garbagna, P. [Experimental and clinical research on the action of a special thymus extract in leukopenia appearing during radiotherapy]. Minerva Med 8-25-1970;61(67):3516-3523. View abstract.

Cunningham-Rundles, S., Harbison, M., Guirguis, S., Valacer, D., and Chretien, P. B. New perspectives on use of thymic factors in immune deficiency. Ann N.Y.Acad.Sci 8-15-1994;730:71-83. View abstract.

Cybulski, L., Turowski, G., Politowski, M., Urban, A., Turaszwili, T., and Zubel, M. Initial observations on the administration of thymus extract (TFX) in patients with alimentary tract neoplasms. Pol.Med Sci Hist Bull. 1976;15(1):47-49. View abstract.

De Maria, D., Falchi, A. M., Armaroli, L., Balli, M., Bortolus, R., Busutti, L., Busetto, M., Polico, R., Emiliani, E., and Maranzato, G. T-lymphocyte subsets in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and their recovery after thymostimulin treatment. A cooperative study. Rays 1993;18(3):438-453. View abstract.

De Serdio, J. L., Villar, A., Alvarez, I. E., Gil-Cubelo, J. A., Suner, M., Hernandez, R., and Lopez-Aguado, D. [The effects of thymostimulin in a protocol of concurrent hyperfractionated carboplatin and irradiation]. Acta Otorrinolaringol.Esp. 1997;48(6):487-492. View abstract.

De Vita, F., Della Vittoria, Scarpati M., Diadema, M. R., Pilerci, N., and Catalano, G. [Bone marrow protection by immunomodulators in antineoplastic chemotherapy]. G Ital Chemioter. 1991;38(1-3):205-206. View abstract.

Di Feliciantonio, R. and Trentini, M. [Changes induced by calf thymus extract on cell-mediated immunity, evaluated by intradermal tests, in the elderly]. Boll.Soc Ital Biol Sper. 12-30-1981;57(24):2486-2492. View abstract.

Di Guglielmo, L. and Coucourde, F. [Study of the action of a thymus extract on leukopenia caused by therapeutic irradiation]. Minerva Med 9-8-1970;61(72):3805-3810. View abstract.

Dobritsa, T. A., Egorov, E. A., Kramorenko, IuS, and Mustafina, ZhG. [Possibility of using T-activin in the treatment of primary glaucoma]. Vestn.Oftalmol. 1988;104(4):22-24. View abstract.

Donati, L. and Periti, P. Antibiotic treatment of burned patients: an Italian multicentre study. Intensive Care Med 1994;20 Suppl 4:S30-S34. View abstract.

Eckert, K., Stange, R., Kalden, M., Krasagakis, K., and Maurer, H. R. Low molecular thymic peptides improve the deficient immunocytotoxicity of mononuclear cells from tumor patients in vitro. Oncology Reports 1997;4(6):1343-1347.

Ernst, E. Thymus therapy for cancer? A criteria-based, systematic review. Eur.J Cancer 1997;33(4):531-535. View abstract.

Farina, E. C., Garino, M., and Balbo, G. Thymostimulin prophylaxis of postoperative infections in anergic patients. Can J Surg 1986;29(6):445-446. View abstract.

Farina, E. C., Garino, M., Resegotti, A., Tapparo, A., and Fusi, D. Immunological controls of postoperative infections in colorectal tumours. Tumori 1995;81(3 Suppl):84-88. View abstract.

Federico, M., Gobbi, P. G., Moretti, G., Avanzini, P., Di Renzo, N., Cavanna, L., Ascari, E., and Silingardi, V. Effects of thymostimulin with combination chemotherapy in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A report from the Italian Lymphoma Study Group (GISL). Am J Clin Oncol. 1995;18(1):8-14. View abstract.

Garagiola, U., Buzzetti, M., Cardella, E., Confalonieri, F., Giani, E., Polini, V., Ferrante, P., Mancuso, R., Montanari, M., Grossi, E., and . Immunological patterns during regular intensive training in athletes: quantification and evaluation of a preventive pharmacological approach. J Int Med Res 1995;23(2):85-95. View abstract.

Geng, Z., Lau, B. H. S., Li, L., and Rong, Y. Thymic peptides inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation. Drug Development & Industrial Pharmacy 1997;23(10):959-965.

Goldstein, A. L., Cohen, G. H., Thurman, G. B., Hooper, J. A., and Rossio, J. L. Regulation of immune balance by thymosin: potential role in the development of suppressor T-cells. Adv.Exp Med Biol 1976;66:221-228. View abstract.

Gorski, A., Skotnicki, A. B., Gaciong, Z., and Korczak, G. The effect of calf thymus extract (TFX) on human and mouse hemopoiesis. Thymus 1981;3(3):129-141. View abstract.

Gorski, J., Kicinska, M., and Gawrecka, G. [Clinical trial of immunoregulation using the TFX Polfa preparation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma]. Przegl.Lek. 1988;45(7):555-558. View abstract.

Gottschalck, T. and Westphal, J. Revitalisation therapy with thymus peptides - Immunocondition and subjective parameters in patients with recurrent infections an sensitive disturbance. Medizinische Welt 1998;49(12):624-628.

Grismondi, G. L., Marini, A., Scivoli, L., and Rigoni, I. [Human fibroblast interferon therapy alone and human fibroblast interferon combined with thymostimulin in genital papillomavirus infection associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia]. Minerva Ginecol. 1991;43(12):581-583. View abstract.

Hamprecht, K., Votsch, W., and Anderer, F. A. Activation of human monocyte and natural killer cell-mediated tumour cell killing by two dialysable thymic factors. Scand J Immunol 1986;24(1):59-71. View abstract.

Harper, J. I., Mason, U. A., White, T. R., Staughton, R. C., and Hobbs, J. R. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of thymostimulin (TP-1) for the treatment of atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol. 1991;125(4):368-372. View abstract.

Holowiecki, J., Duraj, M., Rudzka, E., Jarczok, K., Krawczyk, M., Holowiecka, B., Kniewska, I., Kusnierczyk, J., Opala, G., Stanczuk, M., and . Cooperative randomized studies on the treatment of adult acute leukemia in Poland. A comparison of two remission induction regimes and two maintenance regimes for AML. Folia Haematol.Int Mag.Klin.Morphol.Blutforsch. 1984;111(2):201-207. View abstract.

Hunstein, W. and Ho, A. D. [Therapy in the myelodysplastic syndrome]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1-9-1987;112(2):62-64. View abstract.

Ivanova, L. A. [Immunotherapy in the combined treatment of chronic destructive pulmonary tuberculosis]. Probl.Tuberk. 1994;(3):16-19. View abstract.

Jablonowska, E., Tchorzewski, H., Lewkowicz, P., and Kuydowicz, J. Reactive oxygen intermediates and serum antioxidative system in patients with chronic C hepatitis treated with IFN-alpha and thymus factor X. Arch Immunol.Ther Exp (Warsz.) 2005;53(6):529-533. View abstract.

Jaeger, K. H., Goslar, H. G., Grigoriadis, P. G., and Back, N. Anti-thyroid activity of purified thymus gland extract in male Wistar rats. Pharmacol Res Commun. 1984;16(6):559-577. View abstract.

Jevremovic, M., Bozovic, I., Pesic, M., and Popovic, D. The changes of serum antithrombin III levels induced by thymus extract administration. Thymus 1986;8(1-2):95-96. View abstract.

Juszczyk, J. [Preliminary evaluation of the results of treatment of chronic active hepatitis (HBsAg+) with calf thymus extract (TFX-Polfa)]. Pol.Tyg.Lek. 8-13-1984;39(33):1085-1089. View abstract.

Kerrebijn, J. D., Simons, P. J., Tas, M., Balm, A. J., and Drexhage, H. A. In vivo effects of thymostimulin treatment on monocyte polarization, dendritic cell clustering and serum p15E-like trans-membrane factors in operable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Eur.Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;252(7):409-416. View abstract.

Kerrebijn, J. D., Simons, P. J., Tas, M., Knegt, P. P., Van de Brekel, M. W., Delaere, P., Tan, I. B., Drexhage, H. A., and Balm, A. J. The effects of thymostimulin on immunological function in patients with head and neck cancer. Clin Otolaryngol.Allied Sci 1996;21(5):455-462. View abstract.

Kevorkov, N. N., Gorovits, G. A., and Bakhmet'ev, S. A. [Likopid in the complex immunomodulating treatment of patients with sarcoidosis of the lung and intrathoracic lymph nodes]. Ter.Arkh. 2002;74(3):55-58. View abstract.

Kiczka, W., Juszczyk, J., and Adamek, J. [Results of the treatment of chronic active hepatitis with thymus extract (TFX-Polfa). (Evaluation of the preliminary stage of clinical studies)]. Pol.Tyg.Lek. 2-16-1987;42(7):192-196. View abstract.

Klimov, A. N., Almazov, V. A., Nagornev, V. A., Denisenko, A. D., Pigarevskii, P. V., Ogurtsov, R. P., Sergeeva, E. G., Sitnikova, O. D., and Popov, V. G. [The use of tactivin for treating patients with IHD]. Ter.Arkh. 1995;67(9):24-27. View abstract.

Klobusch, J., Mossler, K., Rabe, T., and Runnebaum, B. [Current approach in the diagnosis and therapy of alopecia in gynecology]. Ther Umsch. 1990;47(12):985-990. View abstract.

Kowalski, M. L., Kuna, P., Grzegorczyk, J., and Rozniecki, J. [Calf thymus extract (TFX-Polfa) in the treatment of pollinosis. Clinical trials by the double-blind method using a placebo]. Pol.Tyg.Lek. 6-15-1987;42(24):739-742. View abstract.

Kraj, M., Dmoszynska, A., Maj, S., Kowalewski, J., Rostkowska, J., Poglod, R., Sokolowska, B., Mendek-Czajkowska, E., Kurowska, M., Sokolowska, U., and . [Chemotherapy and immunomodulating treatment of patients with multiple myeloma]. Acta Haematol.Pol. 1991;22(1):4-20. View abstract.

Lasisz, B., Zdrojewicz, Z., Dul, W., and Strychalski, J. [Clinical trial of the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with TFX (thymus factor X)]. Wiad.Lek. 9-1-1990;43(17-18):870-873. View abstract.

Lasisz, B., Zdrojewicz, Z., Dul, W., Markiewicz, A., and Strychalski, J. [Possibility of using TFX (thymus factor X) in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus]. Pol.Tyg.Lek. 7-23-1989;44(30-31):724-725. View abstract.

Lau, B. H., Li, L., and Yoon, P. Thymic peptide protects vascular endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidant injury. Life Sci. 1993;52(22):1787-1796. View abstract.

Lazzarin, A., Galli, M., Moriondo, P., Parravicini, C., Poli, G., and Moroni, M. Increase of OKT4+ cells during treatment with thymostimulin in parenteral drug addicts with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. J Clin Lab Immunol 1986;20(2):57-61. View abstract.

Lengyel, G. and Feher, J. [Thymostimulin in clinical practice]. Orv.Hetil. 12-25-1994;135(52):2871-2875. View abstract.

Lersch, C., Zeuner, M., Bauer, A., Siemens, M., Hart, R., Drescher, M., Fink, U., Dancygier, H., and Classen, M. Nonspecific immunostimulation with low doses of cyclophosphamide (LDCY), thymostimulin, and Echinacea purpurea extracts (echinacin) in patients with far advanced colorectal cancers: preliminary results. Cancer Invest 1992;10(5):343-348. View abstract.

Lewandowicz, J. [Effect of thymus extract TFX (Polfa) on hemoglobin level and peripheral blood erythrocyte count]. Pol.Tyg.Lek. 6-4-1990;45(23-24):471-472. View abstract.

Lewandowicz, J. [Immediate results of the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with a thymus preparation]. Pol.Tyg.Lek. 6-15-1987;42(24):743-744. View abstract.

Li, L., Clark, K., and Lau, B. H. Thymic peptides increase glutathione level and glutathione disulfide reductase activity in vascular endothelial cells. Biotechnol.Ther 1994;5(1-2):87-97. View abstract.

Liberati, A. M., Ballatori, E., Fizzotti, M., Schippa, M., Cini, L., Cinieri, S., Proietti, M. G., Di Marzio, R., Senatore, M., and Grignani, F. A randomized trial to evaluate the immunorestorative properties of thymostimulin in patients with Hodgkin's disease in complete remission. Cancer Immunol.Immunother. 1988;26(1):87-93. View abstract.

Maccherini, M., Davoli, G., Sani, G., Miraldi, F., Gotti, G., and Toscano, M. [Immunostimulation in heart surgery: thymostimulin. Preliminary data]. Minerva Chir 1993;48(23-24):1445-1448. View abstract.

Macchiarini, P., Danesi, R., Del Tacca, M., and Angeletti, C. A. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9(1):193-196. View abstract.

Mantovani, G., Proto, E., Lai, P., Turnu, E., Sulis, G., Puxeddu, P., and Del Giacco, G. S. [Controlled trial of thymostimulin treatment of patients with primary carcinoma of the larynx resected surgically. Immunological and clinical evaluation and therapeutic prospects]. Recenti Prog.Med 1992;83(5):303-306. View abstract.

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Marcos, C., Quirce, S., Compaired, J. A., Lazaro, M., Igea, J. M., Cuesta, J., and Losada, E. Severe anaphylactic reaction to thymostimulin. Allergy 1991;46(3):235-237. View abstract.

Martelli, M. F., Velardi, A., Rambotti, P., Cernetti, C., Bertotto, A., Spinozzi, F., Bracaglia, A. M., Falini, B., and Davis, S. The in vivo effect of a thymic factor (thymostimulin) on immunologic parameters of patients with untreated Hodgkin's disease. Cancer 8-1-1982;50(3):490-497. View abstract.

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Miller, F. R. Treating leukemia. Thymus extract in relation to remissions in acute leukemia. J Kans.Med Soc 1967;68(7):291-294. View abstract.

Miric, M., Miskovic, A., Brkic, S., Vasiljevic, J., Keserovic, N., and Pesic, M. Long-term follow-up of patients with myocarditis and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy after immunomodulatory therapy. FEMS Immunol.Med Microbiol. 1994;10(1):65-74. View abstract.

Miric, M., Miskovic, A., Vasiljevic, J. D., Keserovic, N., and Pesic, M. Interferon and thymic hormones in the therapy of human myocarditis and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur.Heart J 1995;16 Suppl O:150-152. View abstract.

Miric, M., Vasiljevic, J., Bojic, M., Popovic, Z., Keserovic, N., and Pesic, M. Long-term follow up of patients with dilated heart muscle disease treated with human leucocytic interferon alpha or thymic hormones initial results. Heart 1996;75(6):596-601. View abstract.

Moncada, E., Subira, M. L., Oleaga, A., Goni, F., Sanchez-Ibarrola, A., Monreal, M., Sevilla, M., Goni, M. J., Yoldi, A., Teran, D., and . Insulin requirements and residual beta-cell function 12 months after concluding immunotherapy in type I diabetic patients treated with combined azathioprine and thymostimulin administration for one year. J Autoimmun. 1990;3(5):625-638. View abstract.

Mondola, P., Santillo, M., Santangelo, F., Belfiore, A., Gambardella, P., and Bifulco, M. Effects of a new calf thymus protein on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity in rat (Rattus bubalus) hepatocyte cells (BRL-3A). Comp Biochem.Physiol B 1992;103(2):431-434. View abstract.

Muller, H., Mayer, G., Behnke, B., Heimuller, E., Hamscher, G., Immler, D., Siethoff, C., Meyer, H. E., and Schreiber, M. Enhancing of anti-viral activity against HIV-1 by stimulation of CD8+ T cells with thymic peptides. Clin Exp Immunol. 1999;117(1):76-83. View abstract.

Mustacchi, G., Pavesi, L., Milani, S., Iaffaioli, V., Caraco, A., Comella, G., Contu, A., Farris, A., Attado-Parinello, G., Narcisi, M., and . High-dose folinic acid (FA) and fluorouracil (FU) plus or minus thymostimulin (TS) for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: results of a randomized multicenter clinical trial. Anticancer Res 1994;14(2B):617-619. View abstract.

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Osband, M. E., Lipton, J. M., Lavin, P., Levey, R., Vawter, G., Greenberger, J. S., McCaffrey, R. P., and Parkman, R. Histiocytosis-X. N.Engl.J Med 1-15-1981;304(3):146-153. View abstract.

Palmieri, G., Gridelli, C., Pepe, R., Airoma, G., Iaffaioli, R. V., Frasci, G., Caponigro, F., and Bianco, A. R. Partial response of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma after treatment with thymostimulin. Tumori 2-28-1990;76(1):61-63. View abstract.

Pandolfi, F., Quinti, I., Montella, F., Voci, M. C., Schipani, A., Urasia, G., and Aiuti, F. T-dependent immunity in aged humans. II. Clinical and immunological evaluation after three months of administering a thymic extract. Thymus 1983;5(3-4):235-240. View abstract.

Park, C. S., Li, L., and Lau, B. H. Thymic peptide modulates glutathione redox cycle and antioxidant enzymes in macrophages. J Leukoc.Biol. 1994;55(4):496-500. View abstract.

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Periti, P., Tonelli, F., Mazzei, T., and Ficari, F. Antimicrobial chemoimmunoprophylaxis in colorectal surgery with cefotetan and thymostimulin: prospective, controlled multicenter study. Italian Study Group on Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Abdominal Surgery. J Chemother. 1993;5(1):37-42. View abstract.

Pernice, W., Stahn, R., Fabricius, H. A., and Klingshirn, R. Steroid economising effects of a calf thymus extract in three patients with juvenile chronic arthritis. Klin Wochenschr. 4-15-1983;61(8):429-431. View abstract.

Perotti, F., Landi, G., Primatesta, F., Colombo, A., David, P. G., Castellaro, E., and Baraldi, U. [Thymostimulin immunoprophylaxis in elective abdominal surgery]. Minerva Chir 6-30-1992;47(12):1091-1093. View abstract.

Pivetti-Pezzi, P., De Liso, P., Tamburi, S., Luzi, G., Sirianni, M. C., Palmisano, L., and Aiuti, F. Thymic factor therapy for herpetic keratitis. Ann Ophthalmol. 1985;17(6):327-331. View abstract.

Politowski, M., Turowski, G., Nawrocka-Jarosz, B., and Zubel, M. Pre- and postoperative immunologic reactivity of patients with the ischemic disease of lower limbs. The immunostimulating effect of the thymus extract--TFX. Mater.Med Pol. 1979;11(4):339-344. View abstract.

Pontiggia, P., Ogier, C., and Follini, G. D. Effect of treatment with thymustimulin (Tp-1) on T and B cells in lymphoproliferative disorders. Blut 1983;47(3):153-156. View abstract.

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Raymond, R. S., Fallon, M. B., and Abrams, G. A. Oral thymic extract for chronic hepatitis C in patients previously treated with interferon. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 11-15-1998;129(10):797-800. View abstract.

Rimoldi, R., Brunetta, F., Fioretti, M., Bandera, M., and Ghione, M. Thymostimulin in malignant pleural effusions. Int J Tissue React. 1984;6(1):53-55. View abstract.

Romanov, V. A., Borodin, A. G., and Krylov, V. L. [The use of taktivin for modulating the functional activity of the neutrophilic granulocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus]. Ter.Arkh. 1992;64(5):65-69. View abstract.

Romanski, B., Montowska, L., Zbikowska-Gotz, M., and Staszynska, M. [Clinical trial of treatment with the preparation TFX "Polfa" of 4 patients with acquired immunologic deficiency syndromes]. Pol.Tyg.Lek. 10-7-1985;40(40-41):1139-1142. View abstract.

Romeo, F., Arcoria, D., Palmisano, L., and Polosa, P. Effectiveness of thymostimulin treatment in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive chronic active liver disease. Results of a randomized clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 1985;35(8):1317-1322. View abstract.

Romeo, F., Palmisano, L., and Arcoria, D. Thymostimulin in the treatment of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive chronic active hepatitis. Controlled clinical trial--two years follow-up. Arzneimittelforschung 1987;37(4):450-456. View abstract.

Sakalo, E. A., Malyzhev, V. A., and Danilova, A. I. [Use of T-activin and prodigiozan in combined treatment of patients with diabetic retinopathy]. Oftalmol.Zh. 1988;(4):204-207. View abstract.

Salvati, F., Pallotta, G., Antilli, A., Nunziati, F., De Marinis, F., and Lucchesi, M. [MACC plus thymostimulin (TP-1 Serono) therapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Clinico-immunologic evaluation of the results of a randomized trial]. G Ital Chemioter. 1984;31(1-2):185-189. View abstract.

Samsygin, S. A., Schastnyi, S. A., Vlasenko, V. V., Dolgina, E. N., and Ekk, N. D. [Immunologic correction in the treatment of chronic hematogenic osteomyelitis of long tubular bones in children]. Vestn.Akad.Med Nauk SSSR 1991;(12):50-54. View abstract.

Sanchiz, F. and Milla, A. A randomised study comparing granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) with G-CSF plus thymostimulin in the treatment of haematological toxicity in patients with advanced breast cancer after high dose mitoxantrone therapy. Eur.J Cancer 1996;32A(1):52-56. View abstract.

Schiavon, M., Chiarelli, A., Lohr, G., and Mazzoleni, F. Thymostimulin in the antiinfectious treatment in patients with burns. Arzneimittelforschung 1987;37(5):557-560. View abstract.

Schuff-Werner, P., Lohr, G., Rauschning, W., Schroder, M., Musil, J., and Nagel, G. A. [Effect of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced changes in lymphocyte subset distribution. A longitudinal study in patients with primary inoperable oropharyngeal cancers]. Onkologie. 1987;10(3 Suppl):17-21. View abstract.

Schulze-Forster, K., Eckert, K., and Maurer, H. R. The thymus extract Thymex-L potentiates the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of the human myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Biochim.Biophys Acta 3-16-1995;1265(2-3):110-116. View abstract.

Simon, H. U., Roth, H., Forner, K., and Haroske, D. [Immunological status of patients with recurrent herpes simplex infections. In vitro effect of thymopoietin and splenin-derived and partially modified peptides on peripheral blood lymphocytes in comparison to a thymus extract]. Allerg.Immunol (Leipz.) 1990;36(2):111-118. View abstract.

Skotnicki, A. B., Aleksandrowicz, J., and Lisiewicz, J. [Effect of the calf thymus extract on immunologic reactivity in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia (author's transl)]. Przegl.Lek. 1976;33(3):387-388. View abstract.

Skotnicki, A. B., Aleksandrowicz, J., and Lislewicz, J. Effect of the calf thymus extract on immunologic reactivity in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Boll.Ist.Sieroter.Milan 1975;54(6):500-501. View abstract.

Skripkin, IuK, Biriukov, A. V., Stenina, M. A., Skripnik, A. I., and Korotkii, N. G. [Clinical effectiveness of T-activin in the treatment of cutaneous forms of lupus erythematosus]. Vestn.Dermatol.Venerol. 1985;(5):8-11. View abstract.

Slomkowski, M. [A trial of treatment with thymus factor (TFX) for chronic autoimmune hemolytic anemias]. Pol.Merkuriusz.Lek. 1996;1(5):327-328. View abstract.

Smogorzewska, E. M., Korczynska, M., and Golebiowska, H. The effect of calf thymus extract (TFX) on human T lymphocyte and neutrophil mobility and chemotactic response in vitro. Thymus 1985;7(4):257-260. View abstract.

Sobczyk, W., Kulczycki, J., Pilkowska, E., Iwinska, B., Milewska, D., and Szmigielski, S. [Comparison of the results of the treatment of patients with SSPE using various immunomodulating preparations]. Neurol Neurochir.Pol. 1991;25(5):626-633. View abstract.

Stanojevic-Bakic, N., Milosevic, D., Vuckovic-Dekic, L., Sasic, M., and Markovic, L. Clinical and immunologic effects of T-activin therapy in early stage melanoma patients. Neoplasma 1996;43(4):245-252. View abstract.

Szelenyi, J. G., Paldi-Haris, P., and Hollan, S. R. Immunomodulatory effect and acetylcholine receptor binding of a thymopeptide (Tp4) on human pheripheral blood lymphocytes. Int J immunopathol Pharmacol 1991;4(1):1-8.

Tas, M., Leezenberg, J. A., and Drexhage, H. A. Beneficial effects of the thymic hormone preparation thymostimulin in patients with defects in cell-mediated immunity and chronic purulent rhinosinusitis. A double-blind cross-over trial on improvements in monocyte polarization and clinical effects. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990;80(3):304-313. View abstract.

Tsertsvadze, T., Shavdia, N., Mebonia, I., Shartava, T., Gvaberidze, M., and Aladashvili, M. Immunorehabilitation in patients with herpes simplex. Ann N.Y.Acad.Sci 6-23-1993;685:762-764. View abstract.

Turowski, G., Cybulski, L., Politowski, M., Turaszwili, T., and Zubel, M. First trials of immunopotentiation by thymus extract (TFX) in surgical patients with malignant disease. Acta Med Pol. 1976;17(1):19-39. View abstract.

Turowski, G., Sanokowska, E., and Dynowska, D. Trials of thymus extract TFX administration in dermatological patients resistant to conventional treatment methods. Mater.Med Pol. 1988;20(2):128-131. View abstract.

Turowski, G., Urban, A., Cybulski, L., Turaszwili, T., and Zubel, M. Immunological and patho-clinical observations of a patient with rectal carcinoma after long term administration of thymic extract (TFX). Pol.Med Sci Hist Bull. 1976;15(1):51-58. View abstract.

Vainiene, M. and Sobczyk, W. [Evaluation of the results of the treatment of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with TFX-Polfa]. Neurol Neurochir.Pol. 1985;19(4):286-290. View abstract.

Velardi, A., Gerli, R., Rambotti, P., Spinozzi, F., Cernetti, C., Angelini, A., and Martelli, M. F. The in vitro effect of a calf thymus extract (thymostimulin) on T cell phenotypes in cord blood lymphocytes. Am J Reprod.Immunol 1982;2(5):250-253. View abstract.

Velardi, A., Spinozzi, F., Rambotti, P., Tabilio, A., Losito, A., Zampi, I., Cernetti, C., Martelli, M. F., Grignani, F., and Davis, S. The in vivo effect of thymic factor (thymostimulin) administration on circulating immune complexes and serum lysozyme levels in untreated Hodgkin's disease patients. J Clin Oncol. 1983;1(2):117-125. View abstract.

Vuckovic-Dekic, L. J., Susnjar, S., Stanojevic-Bakic, N., Rajner, L., and Frim, O. The protective activity of Thymex L against radiotherapeutically-induced cellular immunodepression in lung cancer patients. Neoplasma 1992;39(3):171-176. View abstract.

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Wysocki, H., Kiczka, W., Wierusz-Wysocka, B., Szczepanik, A., and Czarnecki, J. The influence of thymus extract (TFX) on the phagocytosis and the bactericidal capacity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Thymus 1985;7(5):271-278. View abstract.

Wyszynska, Z., Blonska, B., and Czaplicki, J. [Trial use of embryonal and early-fetal thymus extracts in the treatment of non-healing skin defects. II. Crural ulcers in humans]. Przegl.Dermatol. 1987;74(4-5):309-315. View abstract.

Yalkut, S. I., Baraboi, V. A., Zhukova, V. M., Zinchenko, V. A., Yudina, O. Yu., Zauer, N. V., Kovbasyuk, S. A., Voeikova, I. M., and Savtsova, Z. D. Influence of low molecular thymic factors on postradiation and chemically induced cytosuppression in experiment. Ekseperimentalnaia Onkologiia 1995;17(2):145-150.

Zdunczyk, A., Aleksandrowicz, J., and Skotnicki, A. B. [Clinical trial of the treatment of dermatomyositis with TFX Polfa]. Pol.Tyg.Lek. 9-30-1985;40(39):1103-1105. View abstract.

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Armerding D, Katz DH. Activation of T and B lymphocytes in vitro. IV. Regulatory influence on specific T cell functions by a thymus extract factor. J Immunol 1975;114:1248-54. View abstract.

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De Martino M, Rossi ME, Muccioli AT, Vierucci A. T lymphocytes in children with recurrent respiratory infections: effect of the use of thymostimulin on the alterations of T-cell subsets. Int J Tissue React 1984;6:223-8. View abstract.

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Maiorano V, Chianese R, Fumarulo R, et al. Thymomodulin increases the depressed production of superoxide anion by alveolar macrophages in patients with chronic bronchitis. Int J Tissue React 1989;11:21-5. View abstract.

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