Tylosis with esophageal cancer: A genetic disorder characterized by thickening (hyperkeratosis) of the palms and soles, white patches in the mouth (oral leukoplakia), and a very high risk of esophageal cancer. This is the only genetic syndrome known to predispose to squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The risk of developing esophageal cancer is 95% by age 70. The syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The gene has been mapped to chromosome 17q25 but has not been identified. The syndrome is also called nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma.