Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- Typhoid fever facts
- What is typhoid fever? What is the history of typhoid fever?
- How do patients get typhoid fever?
- What causes typhoid fever? How do health care professionals diagnose typhoid fever?
- What are the signs and symptoms of typhoid fever?
- What is the treatment for typhoid fever, and what is the prognosis?
- Is it possible to prevent typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever facts
- Typhoid fever usually is caused by Salmonellae typhi bacteria.
- Typhoid fever is contracted by the ingestion of contaminated food or water.
- Diagnosis of typhoid fever is made when the Salmonella bacteria is detected with a stool culture.
- Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics.
- Typhoid fever symptoms are
- Approximately 3%-5% of patients become carriers of the bacteria after the acute illness.
What is typhoid fever? What is the history of typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever is an acute infectious illness associated with fever that is most often caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually leads to a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited through fecal contamination in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area. Typhoid fever is rare in industrial countries but continues to be a significant public health issue in developing countries.
The incidence of typhoid fever in the United States has decreased since the early 1900s. Today, approximately 5,700 cases are reported annually in the United States, mostly in people who recently have traveled to endemic areas. This is in comparison to the 1920s, when over 35,000 cases were reported in the U.S., with a 20% fatality rate.
Several outbreaks in the New York City area in the early 1900s were caused by a healthy carrier referred to as Typhoid Mary (her real name was Mary Mallon), who was infected, worked as a cook, and repeatedly spread the disease to others.
The decrease in cases in the United States is the result of improved environmental sanitation, vaccination, and treatment with antibiotics. Mexico and South America are the most common areas for U.S. citizens to contract typhoid fever. India, Pakistan, and Egypt are also known high-risk areas for developing this disease. Worldwide, typhoid fever affects more than 21 million people annually, with over 200,000 patients dying of the disease.
If traveling to endemic areas, you should consult with your health care professional and discuss if you should receive vaccination for typhoid fever.
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