Other Name(s):

Atomic number 23, Metavanadate, Métavanadate, Orthovanadate, Pentoxyde de Vanadium, Sulfate de Vanadyl, V, Vanadate, Vanadio, Vanadium Pentoxide, Vanadyl, Vanadyl Nicotinate, Vanadyl Sulfate, Vanadyl Sulphate.


Vanadium is a mineral. It was named for the Norse goddess of beauty, Vanadis, because of its beautiful colors. Vanadium supplements are used as medicine.

Vanadium is used for treating diabetes, low blood sugar, high cholesterol, heart disease, tuberculosis, syphilis, a form of “tired blood” (anemia), and water retention (edema); for improving athletic performance in weight training; and for preventing cancer.

How does it work?

There is some evidence that vanadium might act like insulin, or help to increase the effects of insulin.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Likely Effective for...

  • Preventing vanadium deficiency, a condition in which the body doesn't have enough vanadium.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Diabetes. There is some evidence that high doses of vanadyl sulfate (100 mg daily, providing 31 mg elemental vanadium) might improve the way people with type 2 diabetes use insulin, the hormone that processes sugar. The study suggested that high-dose vanadium might lower blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. But there are two big concerns about this study. First, it only involved 40 people, so the conclusions need to be confirmed using a bigger study group. Secondly, even if high-dose vanadium works for diabetes, these high doses, used long-term, might not be safe. It's not known if lower doses work as well. For now, don't use vanadium to treat type 2 diabetes. Wait to see if additional larger studies show benefit and safety.
  • Heart disease.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Water retention (edema).
  • Preventing cancer.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of vanadium for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Vanadium is LIKELY SAFE in adults, if less than 1.8 mg per day is taken. At higher doses, such as those used to treat diabetes, vanadium frequently causes unwanted side effects including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, nausea, and gas. It can also cause a greenish tongue, loss of energy, and problems with the nervous system.

Vanadium is UNSAFE when used in large amounts and for a long time. This increases the risk of serious side effects including kidney damage.

Vanadium might lower blood sugar. People with diabetes should check their blood sugar carefully and watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).

Vanadium is LIKELY SAFE in children when taken in amounts found in foods. Don't give children supplements. Not enough is known about the safety of these larger doses in children.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, limit your intake of vanadium to the amount found in food. Not enough is known about the safety of taking larger doses.

Diabetes: The vanadyl sulfate form of vanadium might lower blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar carefully.

Kidney problems: There is developing evidence that vanadium might harm the kidneys. If you have kidney disease, don't use vanadium supplements.


Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Vanadium seems to decrease blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking vanadium along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Vanadium might slow blood clotting. Taking vanadium along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • People get vanadium from food and from supplements. An average diet provides 6 to 18 mcg of vanadium per day. The various vanadium supplements contain a different amount of vanadium, depending on the chemical compound used. For example, vanadyl sulfate contains 31% elemental vanadium; sodium metavanadate contains 42% elemental vanadium; and sodium orthovanadate contains 28% elemental vanadium.
  • The National Institute of Medicine has set the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of vanadium, the highest intake amount for which no unwanted side effects are expected, at 1.8 mg per day of elemental vanadium for adults. No UL has been set for infants, children, and pregnant or breast-feeding women. In these groups, vanadium intake should be limited to food or infant formula.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Abernethy, D. R., Destefano, A. J., Cecil, T. L., Zaidi, K., and Williams, R. L. Metal impurities in food and drugs. Pharm Res 2010;27(5):750-755. View abstract.

Altamirano-Lozano, M. [Genotoxic effects of vanadium compounds]. Invest Clin 1998;39 Suppl 1:39-47. View abstract.

Aureliano, M. and Crans, D. C. Decavanadate (V10 O28 6-) and oxovanadates: oxometalates with many biological activities. J Inorg.Biochem 2009;103(4):536-546. View abstract.

Badmaev, V., Prakash, S., and Majeed, M. Vanadium: a review of its potential role in the fight against diabetes. J Altern Complement Med 1999;5(3):273-291. View abstract.

Baran, E. J. Oxovanadium(IV) and oxovanadium(V) complexes relevant to biological systems. J Inorg.Biochem 5-30-2000;80(1-2):1-10. View abstract.

Baran, E. J. Vanadium detoxification: chemical and biochemical aspects. Chem Biodivers. 2008;5(8):1475-1484. View abstract.

Barceloux, D. G. Vanadium. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999;37(2):265-278. View abstract.

Barrio, D. A. and Etcheverry, S. B. Vanadium and bone development: putative signaling pathways. Can.J Physiol Pharmacol 2006;84(7):677-686. View abstract.

Beliaeva, N. F., Gorodetskii, V. K., Tochilkin, A. I., Golubev, M. A., Semenova, N. V., and Kovel'man, I. R. [Vanadium compounds--a new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus]. Vopr.Med Khim. 2000;46(4):344-360. View abstract.

Bevan, A. P., Drake, P. G., Yale, J. F., Shaver, A., and Posner, B. I. Peroxovanadium compounds: biological actions and mechanism of insulin-mimesis. Mol.Cell Biochem 12-6-1995;153(1-2):49-58. View abstract.

Beyersmann, D. and Hartwig, A. Carcinogenic metal compounds: recent insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms. Arch.Toxicol. 2008;82(8):493-512. View abstract.

Bhuiyan, M. S. and Fukunaga, K. Cardioprotection by vanadium compounds targeting Akt-mediated signaling. J Pharmacol Sci 2009;110(1):1-13. View abstract.

Bishayee, A., Waghray, A., Patel, M. A., and Chatterjee, M. Vanadium in the detection, prevention and treatment of cancer: the in vivo evidence. Cancer Lett 8-1-2010;294(1):1-12. View abstract.

Bonnefont-Rousselot, D. The role of antioxidant micronutrients in the prevention of diabetic complications. Treat.Endocrinol 2004;3(1):41-52. View abstract.

Bradley, R., Oberg, E. B., Calabrese, C., and Standish, L. J. Algorithm for complementary and alternative medicine practice and research in type 2 diabetes. J Altern.Complement Med. 2007;13(1):159-175. View abstract.

Brichard, S. M. and Henquin, J. C. The role of vanadium in the management of diabetes. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1995;16(8):265-270. View abstract.

Brichard, S. M., Lederer, J., and Henquin, J. C. The insulin-like properties of vanadium: a curiosity or a perspective for the treatment of diabetes? Diabete Metab 1991;17(5):435-440. View abstract.

Cam, M. C., Brownsey, R. W., and McNeill, J. H. Mechanisms of vanadium action: insulin-mimetic or insulin-enhancing agent? Can.J Physiol Pharmacol 2000;78(10):829-847. View abstract.

Chakraborty, T., Chatterjee, A., Rana, A., Rana, B., Palanisamy, A., Madhappan, R., and Chatterjee, M. Suppression of early stages of neoplastic transformation in a two-stage chemical hepatocarcinogenesis model: supplementation of vanadium, a dietary micronutrient, limits cell proliferation and inhibits the formations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosines and DNA strand-breaks in the liver of sprague-dawley rats. Nutr Cancer 2007;59(2):228-247. View abstract.

Chang, T. J., Werd, M. B., and Hovelsen, C. Metallic implants used in foot surgery. Clin.Podiatr.Med.Surg. 1995;12(3):457-474. View abstract.

Cheek, D. B. The control of cell mass and replication. The DNA unit--a personal 20-year study. Early Hum.Dev. 1985;12(3):211-239. View abstract.

Chen, F. and Shi, X. Intracellular signal transduction of cells in response to carcinogenic metals. Crit Rev.Oncol.Hematol. 2002;42(1):105-121. View abstract.

Chen, F., Ding, M., Castranova, V., and Shi, X. Carcinogenic metals and NF-kappaB activation. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2001;222(1-2):159-171. View abstract.

Chen, F., Vallyathan, V., Castranova, V., and Shi, X. Cell apoptosis induced by carcinogenic metals. Mol.Cell Biochem 2001;222(1-2):183-188. View abstract.

Chiasson, J. L. and Srivastava, A. K. [Insulin-like effects of vanadium and other metallic ions. Potential use in the treatment of diabetes]. Journ.Annu.Diabetol.Hotel Dieu 1999;201-211. View abstract.

Coderre, L. and Srivastava, A. K. Vanadium and the cardiovascular functions. Can.J Physiol Pharmacol 2004;82(10):833-839. View abstract.

Crans, D. C. Chemistry and insulin-like properties of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) compounds. J Inorg.Biochem 5-30-2000;80(1-2):123-131. View abstract.

Cros, G., Mongold, J. J., Serrano, J. J., Ramanadham, S., and McNeill, J. H. [Vanadium and diabetes]. Journ.Annu.Diabetol.Hotel Dieu 1991;193-201. View abstract.

Cunningham, J. J. Micronutrients as nutriceutical interventions in diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll.Nutr 1998;17(1):7-10. View abstract.

D'Cruz, O. J. and Uckun, F. M. Metvan: a novel oxovanadium(IV) complex with broad spectrum anticancer activity. Expert.Opin Investig.Drugs 2002;11(12):1829-1836. View abstract.

Dafnis, E. and Sabatini, S. Biochemistry and pathophysiology of vanadium. Nephron 1994;67(2):133-143. View abstract.

Darvesh, A. S. and Bishayee, A. Selenium in the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2010;10(4):338-345. View abstract.

Davison, A., Tibbits, G., Shi, Z. G., and Moon, J. Active oxygen in neuromuscular disorders. Mol.Cell Biochem 1988;84(2):199-216. View abstract.

Desoize, B. Metals and metal compounds in carcinogenesis. In Vivo 2003;17(6):529-539. View abstract.

Ding, M., Shi, X., Castranova, V., and Vallyathan, V. Predisposing factors in occupational lung cancer: inorganic minerals and chromium. J.Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.Oncol. 2000;19(1-2):129-138. View abstract.

Djordjevic, C. Antitumor activity of vanadium compounds. Met.Ions.Biol Syst. 1995;31:595-616. View abstract.

Domingo, J. L. Metal-induced developmental toxicity in mammals: a review. J.Toxicol.Environ.Health 1994;42(2):123-141. View abstract.

Domingo, J. L. Prevention by chelating agents of metal-induced developmental toxicity. Reprod.Toxicol 1995;9(2):105-113. View abstract.

Domingo, J. L. Vanadium and tungsten derivatives as antidiabetic agents: a review of their toxic effects. Biol Trace Elem.Res 2002;88(2):97-112. View abstract.

Evangelou, A. M. Vanadium in cancer treatment. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2002;42(3):249-265. View abstract.

Evans, A. J. and Krentz, A. J. Recent developments and emerging therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs R.D. 1999;2(2):75-94. View abstract.

Fantus, I. G. and Tsiani, E. Multifunctional actions of vanadium compounds on insulin signaling pathways: evidence for preferential enhancement of metabolic versus mitogenic effects. Mol.Cell Biochem 1998;182(1-2):109-119. View abstract.

Faria de, Rodriguez C. [Role of vanadium in metabolism]. Invest Clin 1998;39 Suppl 1:17-27. View abstract.

French, R. J. and Jones, P. J. Role of vanadium in nutrition: metabolism, essentiality and dietary considerations. Life Sci 1993;52(4):339-346. View abstract.

Ghio, A. J., Silbajoris, R., Carson, J. L., and Samet, J. M. Biologic effects of oil fly ash. Environ.Health Perspect. 2002;110 Suppl 1:89-94. View abstract.

Goldfine, A. B., Patti, M. E., Zuberi, L., Goldstein, B. J., LeBlanc, R., Landaker, E. J., Jiang, Z. Y., Willsky, G. R., and Kahn, C. R. Metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate in humans with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: in vivo and in vitro studies. Metabolism 2000;49(3):400-410. View abstract.

Goldfine, A. B., Simonson, D. C., Folli, F., Patti, M. E., and Kahn, C. R. In vivo and in vitro studies of vanadate in human and rodent diabetes mellitus. Mol.Cell Biochem 12-6-1995;153(1-2):217-231. View abstract.

Goldwaser, I., Gefel, D., Gershonov, E., Fridkin, M., and Shechter, Y. Insulin-like effects of vanadium: basic and clinical implications. J Inorg.Biochem 5-30-2000;80(1-2):21-25. View abstract.

Gonzalez-Villalva, A. E., Falcon-Rodriguez, C. I., and Fortoul-van der Goes TI. [Signaling pathways involved in megakaryopoiesis]. Gac.Med Mex. 2010;146(2):136-143. View abstract.

Harding, M. M. and Mokdsi, G. Antitumour metallocenes: structure-activity studies and interactions with biomolecules. Curr Med Chem 2000;7(12):1289-1303. View abstract.

Henquin, J. C. and Brichard, S. M. [Role of vanadium in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Experimental data and clinical applications]. Presse Med 6-27-1992;21(24):1100-1101. View abstract.

Hosokawa, S. and Yoshida, O. Vanadium in chronic hemodialysis patients. Int J Artif.Organs 1990;13(4):197-199. View abstract.

Hryhorczuk, D. O., Aks, S. E., and Turk, J. W. Unusual occupational toxins. Occup.Med 1992;7(3):567-586. View abstract.

Huang, Y. C. and Ghio, A. J. Vascular effects of ambient pollutant particles and metals. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2006;4(3):199-203. View abstract.

Jandhyala, B. S. and Hom, G. J. Minireview: physiological and pharmacological properties of vanadium. Life Sci 10-3-1983;33(14):1325-1340. View abstract.

Jaremin, B. Immunoregulatory properties of some heavy metals in physiology and pathology conditions. Part I. Bull.Inst.Marit.Trop.Med Gdynia 1985;36(1-4):81-88. View abstract.

Jennette, K. W. The role of metals in carcinogenesis: biochemistry and metabolism. Environ.Health Perspect. 1981;40:233-252. View abstract.

Kelly, G. S. Insulin resistance: lifestyle and nutritional interventions. Altern.Med Rev 2000;5(2):109-132. View abstract.

Kiersztan, A. [Insulin-like effect of vanadium compounds]. Postepy Biochem 1998;44(4):275-282. View abstract.

Kimura, K. [Role of essential trace elements in the disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism]. Nippon Rinsho 1996;54(1):79-84. View abstract.

Kleinsasser, N., Dirschedl, P., Staudenmaier, R., Harreus, U., and Wallner, B. Genotoxic effects of vanadium pentoxide on human peripheral lymphocytes and mucosal cells of the upper aerodigestive tract. Int J Environ.Health Res 2003;13(4):373-379. View abstract.

Kopf-Maier, P. Complexes of metals other than platinum as antitumour agents. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1994;47(1):1-16. View abstract.

Kostova, I. Titanium and vanadium complexes as anticancer agents. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2009;9(8):827-842. View abstract.

Kovel'man, I. R., Tochilkin, A. I., Beliaeva, N. F., Gorodetskii, V. K., Kniazhev, V. A., Tkachenko, S. B., Semenov, L. L., and Semenova, N. V. [Modern approaches to pharmacotherapy of diabetes mellitus type II]. Vopr.Med Khim. 2002;48(4):337-352. View abstract.

Krejsa, C. M. and Schieven, G. L. Impact of oxidative stress on signal transduction control by phosphotyrosine phosphatases. Environ.Health Perspect. 1998;106 Suppl 5:1179-1184. View abstract.

Mancinella, A. [Vanadium, an indispensable trace element in living organisms. Current data on biochemical, metabolic levels and therapeutic doses]. Clin Ter. 1993;142(3):251-255. View abstract.

McNeill, J. H., Yuen, V. G., Dai, S., and Orvig, C. Increased potency of vanadium using organic ligands. Mol.Cell Biochem 12-6-1995;153(1-2):175-180. View abstract.

Mehdi, M. Z., Pandey, S. K., Theberge, J. F., and Srivastava, A. K. Insulin signal mimicry as a mechanism for the insulin-like effects of vanadium. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2006;44(1):73-81. View abstract.

Min, J. A., Lee, K., and Ki, D. J. The application of minerals in managing alcohol hangover: a preliminary review. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2010;3(2):110-115. View abstract.

Morinville, A., Maysinger, D., and Shaver, A. From Vanadis to Atropos: vanadium compounds as pharmacological tools in cell death signalling. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1998;19(11):452-460. View abstract.

Mukherjee, B., Patra, B., Mahapatra, S., Banerjee, P., Tiwari, A., and Chatterjee, M. Vanadium--an element of atypical biological significance. Toxicol Lett 4-21-2004;150(2):135-143. View abstract.

Myron, D. R., Givand, S. H., and Nielsen, F. H. Vanadium content of selected foods as determined by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. J Agric.Food Chem 1977;25(2):297-300. View abstract.

Nahas, R. and Moher, M. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Can Fam.Physician 2009;55(6):591-596. View abstract.

Naughton, D. P. and Petroczi, A. Heavy metal ions in wines: meta-analysis of target hazard quotients reveal health risks. Chem Cent.J 2008;2:22. View abstract.

Naylor, G. J. Vanadium and manic depressive psychosis. Nutr Health 1984;3(1-2):79-85. View abstract.

Nechay, B. R. Mechanisms of action of vanadium. Annu.Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1984;24:501-524. View abstract.

Nemery, B. Metal toxicity and the respiratory tract. Eur Respir.J 1990;3(2):202-219. View abstract.

Neve, J. Clinical implications of trace elements in endocrinology. Biol Trace Elem.Res 1992;32:173-185. View abstract.

Neyrolles, N., Blickle, J. F., and Brogard, J. M. [New therapies in type 2 diabetes]. Ann Endocrinol.(Paris) 1998;59(2):67-77. View abstract.

Nielsen, F. H. How should dietary guidance be given for mineral elements with beneficial actions or suspected of being essential? J Nutr 1996;126(9 Suppl):2377S-2385S. View abstract.

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Vanadium. The EFSA Journal 2004;33:1-22.

Orvig, C., Thompson, K. H., Battell, M., and McNeill, J. H. Vanadium compounds as insulin mimics. Met.Ions.Biol Syst. 1995;31:575-594. View abstract.

Poucheret, P., Verma, S., Grynpas, M. D., and McNeill, J. H. Vanadium and diabetes. Mol.Cell Biochem 1998;188(1-2):73-80. View abstract.

Preuss, H. G. Effects of glucose/insulin perturbations on aging and chronic disorders of aging: the evidence. J Am Coll.Nutr 1997;16(5):397-403. View abstract.

Ray, R. S., Basu, M., Ghosh, B., Samanta, K., and Chatterjee, M. Vanadium, a versatile biochemical effector in chemical rat mammary carcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 2005;51(2):184-196. View abstract.

Romero, R. A. Aluminum, vanadium, and lead intoxication of uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis in Venezuela. Transplant.Proc 1994;26(1):330-332. View abstract.

Sabbioni, E., Kueera, J., Pietra, R., and Vesterberg, O. A critical review on normal concentrations of vanadium in human blood, serum, and urine. Sci Total Environ. 9-20-1996;188(1):49-58. View abstract.

Sakurai, H. [Therapeutic potential of vanadium in treating diabetes mellitus]. Clin Calcium 2005;15(1):49-57. View abstract.

Sakurai, H. [Treatment of diabetes in experimental animals by metallocomplexes]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128(3):317-322. View abstract.

Sakurai, H. A new concept: the use of vanadium complexes in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Chem Rec. 2002;2(4):237-248. View abstract.

Sakurai, H., Katoh, A., Kiss, T., Jakusch, T., and Hattori, M. Metallo-allixinate complexes with anti-diabetic and anti-metabolic syndrome activities. Metallomics. 10-1-2010;2(10):670-682. View abstract.

Sakurai, H., Yasui, H., and Adachi, Y. The therapeutic potential of insulin-mimetic vanadium complexes. Expert.Opin Investig.Drugs 2003;12(7):1189-1203. View abstract.

Sakurai, H., Yoshikawa, Y., and Yasui, H. Current state for the development of metallopharmaceutics and anti-diabetic metal complexes. Chem Soc Rev 2008;37(11):2383-2392. View abstract.

Scheen, A. J. Drug treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the 1990s. Achievements and future developments. Drugs 1997;54(3):355-368. View abstract.

Scior, T., Guevara-Garcia, A., Bernard, P., Do, Q. T., Domeyer, D., and Laufer, S. Are vanadium compounds drugable? Structures and effects of antidiabetic vanadium compounds: a critical review. Mini.Rev Med Chem 2005;5(11):995-1008. View abstract.

Shafrir, E., Spielman, S., Nachliel, I., Khamaisi, M., Bar-On, H., and Ziv, E. Treatment of diabetes with vanadium salts: general overview and amelioration of nutritionally induced diabetes in the Psammomys obesus gerbil. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2001;17(1):55-66. View abstract.

Shamberger, R. J. The insulin-like effects of vanadium. J Adv Med 1996;(9):121-131.

Shechter, Y. and Shisheva, A. Vanadium salts and the future treatment of diabetes. Endeavour 1993;17(1):27-31. View abstract.

Shi, S. J., Preuss, H. G., Abernethy, D. R., Li, X., Jarrell, S. T., and Andrawis, N. S. Elevated blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats consuming a high sucrose diet is associated with elevated angiotensin II and is reversed by vanadium. J Hypertens. 1997;15(8):857-862. View abstract.

Shioda, N., Morioka, M., and Fukunaga, K. [Vanadium compounds enhance adult neurogenesis after brain ischemia]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128(3):413-417. View abstract.

Smith, D. M., Pickering, R. M., and Lewith, G. T. A systematic review of vanadium oral supplements for glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. QJM. 2008;101(5):351-358. View abstract.

Srivastava, A. K. and Mehdi, M. Z. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of vanadium compounds. Diabet.Med 2005;22(1):2-13. View abstract.

Srivastava, A. K. Anti-diabetic and toxic effects of vanadium compounds. Mol.Cell Biochem 2000;206(1-2):177-182. View abstract.

Stohs, S. J. and Bagchi, D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 1995;18(2):321-336. View abstract.

Thompson, K. H. and Orvig, C. Vanadium compounds in the treatment of diabetes. Met.Ions.Biol Syst. 2004;41:221-252. View abstract.

Thompson, K. H. and Orvig, C. Vanadium in diabetes: 100 years from Phase 0 to Phase I. J Inorg.Biochem 2006;100(12):1925-1935. View abstract.

Thompson, K. H., Lichter, J., LeBel, C., Scaife, M. C., McNeill, J. H., and Orvig, C. Vanadium treatment of type 2 diabetes: a view to the future. J Inorg.Biochem 2009;103(4):554-558. View abstract.

Tubek, S. Role of trace elements in primary arterial hypertension: is mineral water style or prophylaxis? Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2006;114(1-3):1-5. View abstract.

Tuvemo, T. and Gebre-Medhin, M. The role of trace elements in juvenile diabetes mellitus. Pediatrician. 1983;12(4):213-219. View abstract.

Upreti, R. K. Membrane--vanadium interaction: a toxicokinetic evaluation. Mol.Cell Biochem 12-6-1995;153(1-2):167-171. View abstract.

Valko, M., Morris, H., and Cronin, M. T. Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr.Med.Chem. 2005;12(10):1161-1208. View abstract.

Valko, M., Rhodes, C. J., Moncol, J., Izakovic, M., and Mazur, M. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem.Biol.Interact. 3-10-2006;160(1):1-40. View abstract.

van Klaveren, R. J. and Nemery, B. Role of reactive oxygen species in occupational and environmental obstructive pulmonary diseases. Curr.Opin.Pulm.Med. 1999;5(2):118-123. View abstract.

Vandenplas, O., Binard-Van, Cangh F., Gregoire, J., Brumagne, A., and Larbanois, A. Fever and neutrophilic alveolitis caused by a vanadium based catalyst. Occup.Environ.Med 2002;59(11):785-787. View abstract.

Verma, S., Cam, M. C., and McNeill, J. H. Nutritional factors that can favorably influence the glucose/insulin system: vanadium. J Am Coll.Nutr 1998;17(1):11-18. View abstract.

Viala, A. [Indoor air pollution and health: study of various problems]. Bull.Acad.Natl.Med. 1994;178(1):57-66. View abstract.

Zaporowska, H. and Wasilewski, W. Haematological effects of vanadium on living organisms. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1992;102(2):223-231. View abstract.

Zhang, Z., Chau, P. Y., Lai, H. K., and Wong, C. M. A review of effects of particulate matter-associated nickel and vanadium species on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Int.J.Environ.Health Res. 2009;19(3):175-185. View abstract.

Aharon Y, Mevorach M, Shamoon H. Vanadyl sulfate does not enhance insulin action in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:2194-5.

Bishayee A, Karmakar R, Mandal A, et al. Vanadium mediated chemoprotection against chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats: haematological and histological characteristics. Eur J Cancer Prev 1997;6:58-70. View abstract.

Boden G, Chen X, Ruiz J, et al. Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1996;45:1130-5. View abstract.

Chakraborty A, Chatterjee M. Enhanced erythropoietin and suppression of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) activity in murine lymphoma following administration of vanadium. Neoplasma 1994;41:291-6. View abstract.

Cohen N, Halberstam M, Shlimovich P, et al. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1995;95:2501-9. View abstract.

Cusi K, Cukier S, DeFronzo RA, et al. Vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1410-7. View abstract.

Domingo JL, Gomez M, Llobet JM, et al. Oral vanadium administration to streptozocin-diabetic rats has marked negative side-effects which are independent of the form of vanadium used. Toxicology 1991;66:279-87. View abstract.

Domingo JL, Sanchez DJ, Gomez M, et al. Oral vanadate and Tiron in treatment of diabetes mellitus in rats: improvement of glucose homeostasis and negative side effects. Vet Human Toxicol 1993;35:495-500. View abstract.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at:

Funakoshi T, Shimada H, Kojima S, et al. Anticoagulant action of vanadate. Chem Pharmaceut Bull 1992;40:174-6. View abstract.

Goldfine AB, Simonson DC, Folli F, et al. Metabolic effects of sodium metavanadate in humans with insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:3311-20. View abstract.

Goldwaser I, Li J, Gershonov E, et al. L-Glutamic acid gamma-monohydroxamate. A potentiator of vanadium-evoked glucose metabolism in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 1999;274:26617-24. View abstract.

Halberstam M, Cohen N, Shlimovich P, et al. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM but not in obese nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes 1996;45:659-66. View abstract.

Harland BF, Harden-Williams BA. Is vanadium of human nutritional importance yet? J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:891-4. View abstract.

Klaassen CD, ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. fifth ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Leonard A, Gerber GB. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of vanadium Compounds. Mutat Res 1994;317:81-8. View abstract.

Malabu UH, Dryden S, McCarthy HD, et al. Effects of chronic vanadate administration in the STZ-induced diabetic rat. Diabetes 1994;43:9-15. View abstract.

Nielsen FH. Nutritional requirements for boron, silicon, vanadium, nickel, and arsenic: current knowledge and speculation. FASEB J 1991;5:2661-7. View abstract.

Oster MH, Llobet JM, Domingo JL, et al. Vanadium treatment of diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats results in tissue vanadium accumulation and pro-oxidant effects. Toxicology 1993;83:115-30. View abstract.

Sitprija V, Tungsanga K, Tosukhowong P, et al. Metabolic problems in northeastern Thailand: possible role of vanadium. Mineral Electrolyte Metab 1998;19:51-6. View abstract.

Stern A, Yin X, Tsang SS, et al. Vanadium as a modulator of cellular regulatory cascades and oncogene expression. Biochem Cell Biol 1993;71:103-12. View abstract.

Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, Phillips RS. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1277-94. View abstract.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors