West Nile Encephalitis (cont.)
Sandra Gonzalez Gompf, MD, FACP
Sandra Gonzalez Gompf, MD, FACP is a U.S. board-certified Infectious Disease subspecialist. Dr. Gompf received a Bachelor of Science from the University of Miami, and a Medical Degree from the University of South Florida. Dr. Gompf completed residency training in Internal Medicine at the University of South Florida followed by subspecialty fellowship training there in Infectious Diseases under the directorship of Dr. John T. Sinnott, IV.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- West Nile virus facts
- What is the history of West Nile virus?
- Where did the West Nile virus come from?
- How do people get West Nile virus?
- How do mosquitoes get infected with the West Nile virus?
- Is the West Nile virus contagious?
- Besides mosquitoes, can other insects transmit the West Nile virus?
- Are there other viruses like the West Nile virus?
- What is the incubation period for a West Nile virus infection?
- What are West Nile virus infection symptoms and signs?
- When is there an increased risk for West Nile virus infection?
- Who is at risk for getting a West Nile virus infection?
- Can you get West Nile virus infection from a blood transfusion?
- Can you get West Nile virus infection from having an organ transplantation?
- How do health care professionals diagnose a West Nile virus infection?
- What is the treatment for West Nile virus? Is it possible to prevent West Nile virus infection with a vaccine?
- Is a woman's pregnancy at risk if she gets infected with the West Nile virus?
- What is the prognosis of West Nile virus infection?
- What can a community do to reduce the risk of an outbreak of the West Nile virus?
- What can a person do to reduce the risk of becoming infected with the West Nile virus?
Where did the West Nile virus come from?
To date, strains of the West Nile virus have been commonly found in humans, birds, and other vertebrate animals in Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East. Prior to 1999, the West Nile virus had not been recognized in the Western Hemisphere.
The first recorded epidemics were reported in Israel in the 1950s and in Europe in 1962. A subsequent outbreak occurred in New York in 1999. The American strain of the virus is almost indistinguishable from a strain found in a goose on an Israeli farm in 1998. Thousands of people travel between New York and the Middle East each year. The virus may well have hitchhiked a ride to New York with an infected traveler.
How do people get West Nile virus?
People get West Nile virus from bites of a mosquito (primarily the Culex pipiens mosquito) that is infected with the West Nile virus. This mosquito is often referred to as the house mosquito or the West Nile virus mosquito.
How do mosquitoes get infected with the West Nile virus?
The Culex species that transmits West Nile virus is called the house mosquito because it prefers to lay eggs in small containers of stagnant water, which are common around homes. Humans are not their preferred meal, however, and they become infected by feeding on birds. The infected birds may or may not become ill. The birds are preferred and amplifying hosts of the virus (meaning that the virus reproduces in high numbers) and are important for the virus' life cycle and transmission cycle.
Among birds, crows are most vulnerable to infection by the West Nile virus. They are often killed by the virus. More than 200 species of birds have been found to be infected by the virus, and the common dust-colored house sparrow is probably a principal bird reservoir for the virus in New York. Sparrows can harbor the virus for five days or more at levels high enough to infect mosquitoes that bite them.
The infected mosquitoes then transmit the virus when they bite and suck blood from nearby people and animals and, in the process, inject the virus into their victim.
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