Three types of learning disabilities
The most common types of learning disability include:
Dysgraphia: It is a condition in which an individual has difficulty in writing. The individual may have unusual or distorted writing. In most cases, the individual also finds it difficult to understand different sounds and words that are spoken. Dysgraphia generally occurs among children aged below 15 years, but this specific learning disability may also be present in adults as well. Common dysgraphia symptoms include:
- Difficulty in writing words and numbers, have problems with spelling and mixing up the alphabets
- Difficulty in processing the language
- Difficulty in interpreting the handwriting
Solutions: Treating dysgraphia may take weeks or even months, but patience is essential. Here are some popular and effective treatments of dysgraphia:
- Language therapy programs for improving the general writing ability of the child
- Special training for better recognition of letters and numbers
- Special training that emphasizes the motor skills of the child such as coordination of the hands
Dyscalculia: It is a specific learning disability that causes difficulties in understanding basic math principles and solving simple problems. The dyscalculia-affected child finds it hard to interpret mathematical symbols and numbers. Even simple arithmetic problems are difficult for them to solve. Common symptoms of dyscalculia are as follows:
- Difficult to judge time and distance
- Difficult to differentiate between directions
- Difficult to mentally visualize things
- Difficult to render simple calculations in the mind
- There are many educational therapies for dyscalculia-affected children that are very effective.
- Parents should encourage and support the child in honing other skills in which they excel. These skills could be in things such as art, music, or sports.
Nonverbal learning disability (NLD): It may be difficult to identify individuals who are affected by NLD at an early age. It is only when they enter higher grades that they begin to face problems, especially in social matters. Common NLD symptoms include:
- Degraded abstract reasoning
- Fear of facing new situations
- Lack of good common sense
- Difficulty understanding subjects such as math and English
- Very low self-esteem, consequently creating social problems
- A decline in the ability to think clearly and reasoning power
- Help them with their assignments and all school activities
- Help the child with social meetings and gatherings
Other learning disabilities
Apart from the 3 main types of learning disabilities, below are a few more conditions which can be considered as a learning disability:
- Dyslexia: Dyslexia is a language-based disability in which a person has trouble understanding words, sentences, or paragraphs.
- People with dyslexia often have problems with processing or understanding what they read or hear.
- Many people with dyslexia are notably talented in arts and music, 3D visual perception, athletics, and mechanical ability.
- Memory disabilities: People who are affected by memory disabilities may find it really difficult to memorize things.
- Memory disabilities are just some of the types of learning disabilities that affect memorization. For instance, a person with a particular memory disability may forget a sentence spoken by someone two minutes ago.
- They need to be treated very patiently and calmly because it is easy for children to become frustrated when having to repeatedly work at things that their peers are able to accomplish with ease.
- Visual and auditory disabilities: People with visual and auditory disabilities are able to hear and see properly, but it is hard for them to communicate properly.
- Special attention should be given to help children overcome their disabilities.
- It’s best to enroll the child in a school with a special education program.
- Dyspraxia: Dyspraxia is not a learning disability, but it commonly coexists with other learning disabilities that can affect learning ability. It is a disorder that affects the development of motor skills.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): It is not a learning disability but can cause people to struggle with learning and is commonly linked to other learning disabilities.
- ADHD is a disorder that causes people to lose focus on tasks very easily.