- Motion sickness
- Migraine headache
- Postural orthostatic hypotension (a decrease in blood pressure on standing up from a sitting or lying position)
- Autonomic dysfunction (problems with the part of the nervous system responsible for the control of body functions not consciously directed such as breathing, heartbeat, and digestion)
- Nonulcer dyspepsia (discomfort in the stomach unrelated to an ulcer)
- Peptic ulcer disease
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Bowel obstruction (a condition in which the nerves and brain signals prevent the food from passing through the digestive tract even without a physical blockage)
- Gastroparesis (slow stomach emptying or digestion)
- Pancreatic cancer
- Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
- Gallbladder disease
- Bulimia (eating disorder)
- Early stages of pregnancy (during the first trimester)
- Heart attack
- Heart failure
- Cyclic vomiting syndrome (severe attacks of vomiting or nausea)
- Anorexia nervosa (a psychological disorder in which an individual considers themselves as being overweight or controls the shape and size of a specific body part even when they are extremely thin)
- Brain tumor
- Irritable bowel syndrome
- Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges covering the brain and spinal cord)
- Vestibular neuritis (inflammation of the nerves connecting the inner ear to the brain)
Diseases in the following regions may cause nausea:
Moreover, nausea can be associated with causes that aren’t due to underlying diseases, which include:
- Emotional stress (fear)
- An excessive amount of alcohol
- Pill is taken on an empty stomach
- Ingestion of toxins
- Intense pain
- Aversion to strong odors
- Medications such as opioids, cannabis, aspirin, oral contraceptives, and antibiotics
The cause of nausea and vomiting can be determined by its timing:
- Food poisoning, gastritis, ulcer, or bulimia: Appears shortly after a meal
- Salmonella food poisoning: Takes longer to produce symptoms
- Food poisoning due to Clostridium perfringens: Eight hours after a meal
The causes of nausea and vomiting in children may vary from those in adults, and they include the following:
What are the symptoms of nausea?
Nausea may occur alone or may be accompanied by certain symptoms. Nausea accompanied by symptoms may indicate an underlying medical condition:
- Nausea with abdominal pain indicates diseases that involve structural alterations (e.g. cholelithiasis).
- Abdominal tenderness with nausea suggests bowel obstruction.
- Vomiting of blood-like material may indicate upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
- Heartburn with nausea signals gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
- Early morning nausea or vomiting is typical of the early stages of pregnancy.
- Headache with nausea indicates migraine.
- Vomitus with sediments indicates an intestinal blockage.
- Nausea with rapid involuntary eye movements signals vestibular neuritis.
- Nausea with tooth enamel erosion, fine hair, and hardening of the skin in the upper portion of palms signals bulimia.
When to call a doctor?
Call the physician immediately if you observe these symptoms:
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