Gallbladder cancer is generally hard to diagnose at an early stage. This is because it does not cause any specific signs or symptoms at an earlier stage. Also, the gallbladder being hidden behind other organs makes cancer less likely to get detected. Hence, most gallbladder cancers are often detected in advanced stages.
What causes gallbladder cancer?
It is not clear what causes gallbladder cancer. Changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the cell known as mutations are known to trigger the uncontrolled growth of the cells. These cells do not die at a certain time like other cells but accumulate and give rise to gallbladder tumors or cancer.
It is thought that inflammation and irritation of the gallbladder for a long time can lead to gallbladder cancer. This inflammation and irritation can be caused by
- Chronic gallbladder inflammation (such as in cholecystitis).
- Reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct (due to problems in the bile duct).
Certain factors increase your risk for gallbladder cancer. These include
- Other conditions of the gallbladder
- Older age (most common in 65 years of age and above)
- Ethnicity (more common in Mexican and Latin Americans and Native Americans)
- Choledochal cysts (bile-filled sacs along the common bile duct, the tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine)
- Family history of gallbladder cancer
- Exposure to chemicals used in the textile and rubber industries
- Exposure to nitrosamines
How is gallbladder cancer diagnosed?
Blood tests known as liver function tests can help the doctor diagnose problems in your gallbladder, liver or pancreas. Certain substances, called tumor markers, may be raised in the blood of cancer patients. The tumor markers for gallbladder cancer, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9, may also be measured through blood tests.
Ultrasound (US), particularly abdominal ultrasound, is a simple test that does not use radiation. It is often the first test used to look at the organs for signs or symptoms such as jaundice abdominal pain.
The endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) test is more accurate than the abdominal US. For this test, a small US probe on the tip of a thin, flexible tube is inserted through a small incision into your abdomen to look for signs of pancreatic cancer. A small piece of the tumor may also be removed (biopsy) and sent to the laboratory to check for cancerous cells.
This imaging test uses strong radio waves and magnets, but not radiation. Similar to a CT scan, it provides detailed pictures of the gallbladder.
Doctors put a thin, flexible tube-like camera through a small incision into your abdomen and look at the abnormalities in the gallbladder and its surrounding structures. This surgical procedure is known as explorative laparoscopy. If they suspect a tumor, they may remove the gallbladder at this time and send the small piece of the tumor to the laboratory to confirm if it was of cancer. This procedure is known as a biopsy.
This imaging test looks for the blockage, narrowing or dilation in the bile ducts.
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Gallbladder Cancer. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/278641-overview