What is typhoid fever?
Causes of typhoid fever
Typhoid fever is only caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. The typhoid bacteria multiply and spread through contaminated food and water. After you are infected, it can take one to three weeks for symptoms to start.
In fact, people who work in certain professions must have negative stool tests following their typhoid infection before they can legally return to work. This includes:
- Childcare workers
- Anyone who handles food
- Healthcare workers
Those who have had typhoid fever can get it again if they are re-exposed to the bacteria.
When travelling abroad in areas where typhoid fever is common, be sure to get vaccinated. To further lower the risk of contracting the disease:
- Drink only sealed, bottled, or treated water
- Don't eat raw fruits and vegetables
- Don't eat foods from street vendors
Who can get typhoid fever?
Anyone can get typhoid fever. However, this bacterium is not common in industrialized countries. It is more common in developing countries. Many cases in industrialized nations are brought back from travelers to other areas.
Vaccines are available for people traveling abroad to areas with a higher risk of contracting typhoid fever.
Diagnosis for typhoid fever
Your doctor will give you this test if you have symptoms of typhoid fever or were exposed to someone who recently had the infection.
Treatments for typhoid fever
Doctors treat typhoid fever with antibiotics. However, in some parts of the world strains of typhoid fever have become resistant to most antibiotics. Doctors and researchers must continually track which antibiotics continue to offer effective treatment.
Complications and side effects of typhoid fever
If you are allergic to these antibiotics, it may be rather difficult to find effective medicine that you can take safely.
However, the main risk with typhoid fever is not receiving any medical treatment. One out of five people who don’t get treatment for typhoid fever die.
The risk of complications also grows if the treatment is delayed. Complications that can develop in untreated cases of typhoid fever include:
For this reason, if you have symptoms of typhoid fever, you should seek immediate medical attention. This is especially true if you have recently traveled to an area where there is a higher risk of contracting the disease.
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Cureus: "The Implications of Extensive Drug-resistant Typhoid Fever: A Case Report."
Mayo Clinic: "Typhoid fever."
New York State Department of Health: "Typhoid Fever."