The exact cause of liver cancer is not known. Researchers have revealed that liver cancer occurs when the cells in the liver grow uncontrollably because of an abnormal change in their genetic material (mutation). Scientists have made progress in understanding the role of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in causing normal cells to become cancer. DNA is the source of instructions for everything that our cells do.
- Oncogenes: These genes promote cell division
- Tumor suppressor genes: These genes slow down cell division or make cells die at the right time.
DNA mutations causing the activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes can lead to cancer.
Besides, certain chemicals (such as aflatoxin) may damage the DNA in the liver cells. For example, studies have shown that aflatoxin can damage the TP53 tumor suppressor genes, leading to increased abnormal cells and cancer.
What is liver cancer?
Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the liver. The different types of liver cancer are
- Primary liver cancer: This cancer starts in the liver. Primary liver cancer is of different types:
- Secondary liver cancer (metastatic liver cancer): Cancer originating in other parts of the body that spreads (metastasized) to the liver.
- Benign liver tumors: Noncancerous tumors may grow large enough to cause problems, but they do not invade nearby tissues.
Which factors can increase the risk of liver cancer?
Several factors can increase a person’s chance of getting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
HCC is more common in men than in women.
In the United States, races with the highest risk are presented in descending order
- Pacific Islanders
- American Indians/Alaska Natives
- African American
Cirrhosis causes scarring of the liver cells. People with cirrhosis are at an increased risk of liver cancer.
Chronic hepatitis infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common risk factor for liver cancer. These infections can cause cirrhosis of the liver. These viruses make liver cancer the most common cancer in many parts of the world.
Certain hereditary conditions, such as inherited hemochromatosis, can lead to liver cancer. Hemochromatosis is a condition where the body absorbs excess iron from food. The extra iron settles in tissues throughout the body, including the liver. If the liver is overloaded with iron, it can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Heavy alcohol use
Heavy and harmful drinking is the primary cause of cirrhosis in the United States. Cirrhosis, in turn, increases the person’s risk of getting liver cancer.
Obesity is associated with fatty liver disease and cirrhosis, both of which contribute to liver cancer.
Type 2 diabetes accompanied by various other factors has been shown to increase the risk of liver cancer. Other factors include
- Heavy alcohol use
- Chronic viral hepatitis
Diseases that increase the risk of liver disease include