Most of the cancers, if diagnosed and treated in the early stages, are definitely survivable. The main issue is timely detection. Many types of cancer are still very difficult to detect in the early stages because of their location, vague symptoms, and late reporting by patients. Higher survival rates are large because of several factors including not only early detection but also better treatment approaches. Treatment options have been revolutionized. A few decades ago, surgery and chemotherapy were the main treatment. However, now many more options are available such as immunotherapy and targeted drugs, hormone therapy, and radiation therapy.
|Sr. No. (From most to least)||Type of cancer||Patients expected to survive five years after their diagnosis (percent)|
|4||Melanoma (Skin cancer)||94|
|5||Female breast cancer||91|
|6||Hodgkin lymphoma (blood cancer of the lymphocytes)||88|
|7||Cancer of the uterus||83|
|9||Kidney and renal pelvis||75|
|10||Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (blood cancer)||74|
|11||Cancer of the cervix||69|
|12||Cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx||68|
|13||Colon and rectal cancer||66|
|14||Leukemia (Blood cancer)||65|
|16||Myeloma (White blood cell cancer)||52|
|18||Brain and nervous system cancer||35|
|21||Lungs and bronchial cancer||19|
|22||Liver and bile duct cancer||19|
What are the most common types of cancer?
Cancer is a leading cause of deaths worldwide. The most common types of cancer include
What are the common causes of cancer?
- Genetic factors and a familial history of cancer are one of the important causes of developing cancer.
- Exposure to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation can lead to cancerous changes in the body.
- Exposure to asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxin (a food contaminant) and arsenic can lead to cancer.
- Infections from certain viruses (human papillomavirus [HPV] and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) are also considered a trigger for developing cancer.
- Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are risk factors for cancer.
What are the common warning signs of cancer?
Cancer is a medical condition in which the body cells grow out of control and crowd out the normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should. Cancer can start at any place in the body—be it the lungs, breast, colon or even blood. Cancer is alike in some way, but it is different in the ways it grows and spreads. Seven common warning signs of cancer are described below.
- Changes in bowel or bladder habits: Cancer can change the body’s metabolism. Stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and ovarian cancer are considered to change bowel and bladder habits in an individual.
- A sore that does not heal: A sure sign of skin cancer is a growth that starts to look different or a sore that doesn't heal. The sore may get bigger or thicker with change in color, oddly shaped border and crusts or scabs over the sore that doesn’t heal.
- Unusual bleeding or discharge: Blood could be a warning sign of a problem in the urinary tract and digestive tract. Kidney or bladder cancer can cause this symptom.
- Thickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere: This is a hallmark symptom of breast cancer. Any new or changing growths in the breasts or elsewhere shouldn’t be neglected. Sometimes, the lump may be painful and contain blood or fluid.
- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing: A constant feeling of a lump in the throat when it is hard can signal esophageal cancer. Individuals should seek urgent medical attention for such conditions because these may restrict the airway.
- Extreme fever with night sweats and tiredness: This is a warning sign of cancer. A thorough medical examination may be required to find the cause of this symptom.
- Nagging cough or hoarseness: It may be a potential symptom of lung cancer along with or without chest pain, weight loss, hoarseness, fatigue and shortness of breath.
Can an individual survive from cancer?
- When identified early, cancer is more likely to respond to effective treatment and can result in a greater probability of surviving.
- Early and periodic screening can identify individuals with abnormalities that are suggestive of specific cancer and help them with an improved treatment outlook.
- For example, a 50-year-old patient who is a heavy smoker should have regular checkups and, if necessary, should undergo a computed tomography (CT) scan of their lungs every six months to detect any early symptoms of lung cancer.
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Warning Signs of Cancer: https://www.afro.who.int/news/7-warning-signs-cancer