The various methods used to trigger hypertrophy include:
- Strength training exercises with resistance bands
- Weight training exercises with free weights, weight machines, and body weights
- Standing shoulder press
- Alternating between heavyweights and lighter weights
- Limiting cardiorespiratory exercises
- Exercising a single joint at one time to maximum capacity
Muscle hypertrophy can also be caused due to mutations in the MSTN gene, leading to a rare genetic condition called myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy. Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is a condition characterized by reduced body fat and increased muscle size.
Muscle hypertrophy can also be related to disorders of the nervous system (neurogenic). The various causes of neurogenic muscle hypertrophy include:
- Neuropathies (damage of one or more nerve in the peripheral nervous system)
- Radiculopathies (a condition where the nerve gets pinched by the spine)
- Spinal muscular atrophy (a genetic disease affecting the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and voluntary muscle movement)
- Post-polio syndrome
Other causes of muscle hypertrophy include:
- Myotonia congenita (a disorder that affects the muscles used for movement)
- Amyloidosis (a rare disease that leads to the buildup of amyloid in the organs)
- Isaac’s syndrome (a rare neuromuscular disorder that is characterized by progressive muscle stiffness)
- Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (a group of diseases that cause weakness and wasting of the muscles in the arms and legs)
- Myotubular myopathy (a neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe muscle weakness)
- Becker’s dystrophy (progressive weakness and wasting of the cardiac and skeletal muscles)
- Stiff-person syndrome (a condition characterized by fluctuating muscle rigidity in the trunk and limbs and muscle spasms triggered by noise, touch, and emotional distress)
- Schwartz Jampel syndrome (a condition characterized by permanent muscle stiffness and bone abnormalities)
- Parasite infestations
What is muscle hypertrophy?
Muscle hypertrophy is an increase in and growth of muscle size. Skeletal muscle has two fundamental functions:
- To contract to generate body movements
- To provide strength for body posture
In a healthy individual, the muscles are put through an intense exercise schedule to increase muscle mass and the cross-sectional area. Ultimately, there is an increase in the size of the individual muscle fibers.
There are two ways to achieve muscle hypertrophy:
- Myofibrillar: The growth of muscle contraction parts
- Sarcoplasmic: Increased muscle glycogen storage
Differences between myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic muscle hypertrophy are enlisted below:
|Increases||strength and speed||energy storage and endurance|
|Activates||contractor muscles||glycogen storage in muscles|
|Results in||thicker muscles||larger muscles|
The advantages of muscle hypertrophy include:
- Develops maximal strength
- Increased energy expenditure
- Increased resting metabolic rate
- A decrease in percent body fat
How is muscle hypertrophy achieved?
Hypertrophy depends on three primary factors:
The intensity of mechanical tension from weight training is determined by the following factors:
- The degree of weight lifting
- Time under stress (duration of the applied load)
Intense weight training that creates an overload causes muscle damage and inflammatory response, thus releasing various growth factors.
Anaerobic system exercises cause metabolic stress, leading to muscle fiber degradation. Finally, the body repairs the damaged tissue above and beyond its ability to prevent the damage caused by the same workout. The body repairs the damaged tissue while sleeping; hence, it is necessary to get seven to nine hours of sleep every day.
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