- Isolated Diastolic Hypertension
- Blood Pressure Levels
- Types of Hypertension
- Risk Factors
Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries, which carry blood to other parts of your body. Your blood pressure can be measured using two numbers:
- Systolic (the number on top): pressure exerted when the heart pumps blood throughout the body
- Diastolic (the number at the bottom): pressure exerted when the heart relaxes and refills with blood
What is isolated diastolic hypertension?
With hypertension, typically both systolic and diastolic blood pressures are elevated. However, isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) occurs when your systolic blood pressure is normal, and only your diastolic blood pressure is high (over 80 mm Hg).
IDH is an uncommon type of hypertension, accounting for less than 20% of all hypertension cases. Like other types of hypertension, IDH can increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, heart attack, heart failure, aneurysm, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss and chronic kidney disease.
What causes high diastolic blood pressure?
Possible causes of isolated diastolic hypertension include:
What are symptoms of high diastolic pressure?
If only your diastolic blood pressure is high, you may not experience any symptoms. However, severe hypertension symptoms include:
How is high diastolic blood pressure treated?
Isolated diastolic blood pressure can often be managed with lifestyle modifications, dietary supplements, and medications.
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- Eating a high-fiber diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in saturated fat and dairy products
- Reducing sodium in the diet
- Exercising regularly
- Quitting smoking
- Limiting alcohol use
- Managing stress
- Getting adequate sleep
- Practicing slow deep breathing
- Monitoring blood pressure at home
Dietary supplements that may help lower blood pressure include:
- Minerals like magnesium, calcium and potassium
- Supplements that widen blood vessels, such as cocoa, coenzyme Q10, L-arginine and garlic
- Omega-3 fatty acids, found fish oil supplements and flaxseeds
If lifestyle and dietary changes are not enough to lower your blood pressure, your doctor may be able to prescribe medications for you.
What are the different blood pressure levels?
|Blood pressure levels||Systolic (mm Hg)||Diastolic (mm Hg)|
|Normal blood pressure||Less than 120||Less than 80|
|Elevated blood pressure or prehypertension||Between 120 to 129||Less than 80|
|Stage 1 hypertension||Between 130 to 139||Between 80 to 89|
|Stage 2 hypertension||140 or higher||90 or higher|
|Hypertensive crisis||Higher than 180||Higher than 120|
What are the main types of hypertension?
There are two types of hypertension:
1. Primary or essential hypertension
This type of hypertension may be the result of multiple factors, including:
- Blood plasma volume
- Hormone activity
- Physical changes in the body due to age
- Environmental factors, such as stress and lack of exercise
2. Secondary hypertension
In some people, hypertension is caused by an underlying health condition. This type of hypertension tends to appear suddenly. Secondary hypertension also generally causes higher blood pressure than primary hypertension.
Secondary hypertension is caused by specific conditions and their complications:
- Kidney disease
- Congenital heart defects
- Congenital defects in blood vessels
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Certain endocrine tumors
- Adrenal gland tumors
- Cushing syndrome
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
- Thyroid problems
- Certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, pain relievers and some prescription drugs
- Use of illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines
What are the risk factors of high blood pressure?
Factors that increase the risk of hypertension include:
- Being over the age of 60, when arteries stiffen and narrow due to plaque buildup
- Being overweight or obese
- Regular tobacco use
- Alcohol abuse
- Male gender
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Lack of exercise
- High fat intake
- High salt intake
- Low potassium intake
- Family history of hypertension
- Existing health conditions:
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Alexander MR. Hypertension. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/241381-overview
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American Academy of Family Physicians. Hypertension in Adults Over 60. January 2017. https://www.aafp.org/family-physician/patient-care/clinical-recommendations/all-clinical-recommendations/hypertension-over-60.html