Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
What Is Xigduo XR?
Xigduo XR (dapagliflozin and metformin HCl) is a combination of two oral antihyperglycemic medications used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both dapagliflozin and metformin is appropriate.
What Are Side Effects of Xigduo XR?
Xigduo XR may cause serious side effects including:
- difficulty breathing,
- swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat,
- bladder pain,
- bloody urine,
- cloudy urine,
- change in color, amount, or odor of vaginal discharge,
- burning or painful urination,
- frequent urge to urinate,
- lower back or side pain,
- decreased appetite,
- fast or shallow breathing,
- general ill feeling,
- muscle pain or cramping,
- stomach pain,
- unusual tiredness or weakness,
- blurred vision,
- clay-colored stools,
- cold sweats,
- pale skin,
- fast heartbeat,
- increased appetite,
- joint pain, stiffness, or swelling,
- loss of appetite,
- loss of consciousness,
- pain, tenderness, redness, or swelling of the area between the anus and genitals,
- redness of the skin,
- slurred speech,
- tightness in the chest,
- difficulty swallowing,
- unpleasant breath odor,
- vomiting blood, and
- yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice)
Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above.
Common side effects of Xigduo XR include:
- genital yeast infection (in women and men),
- common cold symptoms,
- runny or stuffy nose,
- sore throat,
- urinary tract infection,
- flu symptoms,
- back pain,
- increased urination,
- discomfort with urination, and
- pain in extremities.
Seek medical care or call 911 at once if you have the following serious side effects:
- Serious eye symptoms such as sudden vision loss, blurred vision, tunnel vision, eye pain or swelling, or seeing halos around lights;
- Serious heart symptoms such as fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeats; fluttering in your chest; shortness of breath; and sudden dizziness, lightheadedness, or passing out;
- Severe headache, confusion, slurred speech, arm or leg weakness, trouble walking, loss of coordination, feeling unsteady, very stiff muscles, high fever, profuse sweating, or tremors.
This document does not contain all possible side effects and others may occur. Check with your physician for additional information about side effects.
Dosage for Xigduo XR
The starting dose of Xigduo XR is individualized based on the patient's current treatment.
What Drugs, Substances, or Supplements Interact with Xigduo XR?
Xigduo XR may interact with amiloride, cimetidine, digoxin, morphine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, ranitidine, triamterene, trimethoprim, vancomycin, diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use.
Xigduo XR During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
During pregnancy, Xigduo XR should be taken only if prescribed. It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.
Our Xigduo XR (dapagliflozin and metformin HCl) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Seek medical attention right away if you have signs of a genital infection (penis or vagina): burning, itching, odor, discharge, pain, tenderness, redness or swelling of the genital or rectal area, fever, not feeling well. These symptoms may get worse quickly.
Call your doctor at once if you have:
- little or no urination;
- signs of a bladder infection--pain or burning when you urinate, increased urination, blood in your urine, fever, pain in your pelvis or back;
- dehydration symptoms--dizziness, weakness, feeling light-headed (like you might pass out);
- ketoacidosis (too much acid in the blood)--nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, confusion, unusual drowsiness, or trouble breathing; or
- lactic acidosis--unusual muscle pain, trouble breathing, stomach pain, vomiting, irregular heart rate, dizziness, feeling cold, or feeling very weak or tired.
Side effects may be more likely to occur in older adults.
Common side effects may include:
- genital infections;
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; or
- runny or stuffy nose, sore throat.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
The following important adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:
- Lactic Acidosis [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Ketoacidosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Volume Depletion [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Use with Medications Known to Cause Hypoglycemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier's Gangrene) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Vitamin B12 Concentrations [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Genital Mycotic Infections [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Dapagliflozin And Metformin HCl
Data from a prespecified pool of patients from 8 short-term, placebo-controlled studies of dapagliflozin coadministered with metformin immediate- or extended-release was used to evaluate safety. This pool included several add-on studies (metformin alone and in combination with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP4] inhibitor and metformin, or insulin and metformin, 2 initial combination with metformin studies, and 2 studies of patients with CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus who received their usual treatment [with metformin as background therapy]). For studies that included background therapy with and without metformin, only patients who received metformin were included in the 8-study placebo-controlled pool. Across these 8 studies 983 patients were treated once daily with dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin and 1185 were treated with placebo and metformin. These 8 studies provide a mean duration of exposure of 23 weeks. The mean age of the population was 57 years and 2% were older than 75 years. Fiftyfour percent (54%) of the population was male; 88% White, 6% Asian, and 3% Black or African American. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 8 years, mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 8.4%, and renal function was normal or mildly impaired in 90% of patients and moderately impaired in 10% of patients.
The overall incidence of adverse events for the 8-study, short-term, placebo-controlled pool in patients treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin was 60.3% compared to 58.2% for the placebo and metformin group. Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse events in patients who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin was 4% compared to 3.3% for the placebo and metformin group. The most commonly reported events leading to discontinuation and reported in at least 3 patients treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin were renal impairment (0.7%), increased blood creatinine (0.2%), decreased renal creatinine clearance (0.2%), and urinary tract infection (0.2%).
Table 2 shows common adverse reactions associated with the use of dapagliflozin and metformin. These adverse reactions were not present at baseline, occurred more commonly on dapagliflozin and metformin than on placebo, and occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with either dapagliflozin 5 mg or dapagliflozin 10 mg.
Table 2: Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Studies Reported in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Dapagliflozin and Metformin
|Adverse Reaction||% of Patients|
|Pool of 8 Placebo-Controlled Studies|
|Placebo and Metformin
|Dapagliflozin 5 mg and Metformin
|Dapagliflozin 10 mg and Metformin
|Female genital mycotic infections*||1.5||9.4||9.3|
|Urinary tract infections†||3.6||6.1||5.5|
|Male genital mycotic infections‡||0||4.3||3.6|
|Discomfort with urination||1.1||2.2||1.6|
|* Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for females: vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vaginal infection, genital infection, vulvovaginitis, fungal genital infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulval abscess, genital candidiasis, and vaginitis bacterial. (N for females: Placebo and metformin=534, dapagliflozin 5 mg and metformin=223, dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin=430).
† Urinary tract infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: urinary tract infection, cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethritis, and prostatitis.
‡ Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for males: balanitis, fungal genital infection, balanitis candida, genital candidiasis, genital infection, posthitis, and balanoposthitis. (N for males: Placebo and metformin=651, dapagliflozin 5 mg and metformin=187, dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin=553).
§ Increased urination includes the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: pollakiuria, polyuria, and urine output increased.
In placebo-controlled monotherapy trials of metformin extended-release, diarrhea and nausea/vomiting were reported in >5% of metformin-treated patients and more commonly than in placebo-treated patients (9.6% versus 2.6% for diarrhea and 6.5% versus 1.5% for nausea/vomiting). Diarrhea led to discontinuation of study medication in 0.6% of the patients treated with metformin extended-release.
Dapagliflozin 10 mg has been evaluated in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, patients with heart failure, and patients with chronic kidney disease. The overall safety profile of dapagliflozin was consistent across the studied indications. No new adverse reactions were identified in the DAPA-HF and DAPA-CKD studies.
Pool Of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies For Dapagliflozin 5 And 10 mg For Glycemic Control
The data in Table 3 are derived from 12 glycemic control placebo-controlled studies ranging from 12 to 24 weeks. In 4 studies dapagliflozin was used as monotherapy, and in 8 studies dapagliflozin was used as add-on to background antidiabetic therapy or as combination therapy with metformin [see Clinical Studies].
These data reflect exposure of 2338 patients to dapagliflozin with a mean exposure duration of 21 weeks. Patients received placebo (N=1393), dapagliflozin 5 mg (N=1145), or dapagliflozin 10 mg (N=1193) once daily. The mean age of the population was 55 years and 2% were older than 75 years of age. Fifty percent (50%) of the population were male; 81% were White, 14% were Asian, and 3% were Black or African American. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 6 years, had a mean HbA1c of 8.3%, and 21% had established microvascular complications of diabetes. Baseline renal function was normal or mildly impaired in 92% of patients and moderately impaired in 8% of patients (mean eGFR 86 mL/min/1.73 m²).
Table 3 shows common adverse reactions associated with the use of dapagliflozin. These adverse reactions were not present at baseline, occurred more commonly on dapagliflozin than on placebo, and occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with either dapagliflozin 5 mg or dapagliflozin 10 mg.
Table 3: Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Studies of Glycemic Control Reported in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Dapagliflozin
|Adverse Reaction||% of Patients|
|Pool of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies|
|Dapagliflozin 5 mg
|Dapagliflozin 10 mg
|Female genital mycotic infections*||1.5||8.4||6.9|
|Urinary tract infections†||3.7||5.7||4.3|
|Male genital mycotic infections§||0.3||2.8||2.7|
|Discomfort with urination||0.7||1.6||2.1|
|Pain in extremity||1.4||2.0||1.7|
|* Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for females: vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vaginal infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginitis, genital infection, genital candidiasis, fungal genital infection, vulvitis, genitourinary tract infection, vulval abscess, and vaginitis bacterial. (N for females: Placebo=677, dapagliflozin 5 mg=581, dapagliflozin 10 mg=598).
† Urinary tract infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: urinary tract infection, cystitis, Escherichia urinary tract infection, genitourinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, trigonitis, urethritis, kidney infection, and prostatitis.
‡ Increased urination includes the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: pollakiuria, polyuria, and urine output increased.
§ Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for males: balanitis, fungal genital infection, balanitis candida, genital candidiasis, genital infection male, penile infection, balanoposthitis, balanoposthitis infective, genital infection, and posthitis. (N for males: Placebo=716, dapagliflozin 5 mg=564, dapagliflozin 10 mg=595).
Pool Of 13 Placebo-Controlled Studies For Dapagliflozin 10 mg For Glycemic Control
Dapagliflozin 10 mg was also evaluated in a larger glycemic control placebo-controlled study pool. This pool combined 13 placebo-controlled studies, including 3 monotherapy studies, 9 addon to background antidiabetic therapy studies, and an initial combination with metformin study. Across these 13 studies, 2360 patients were treated once daily with dapagliflozin 10 mg for a mean duration of exposure of 22 weeks. The mean age of the population was 59 years and 4% were older than 75 years. Fifty-eight percent (58%) of the population were male; 84% were White, 9% were Asian, and 3% were Black or African American. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 9 years, had a mean HbA1c of 8.2%, and 30% had established microvascular disease. Baseline renal function was normal or mildly impaired in 88% of patients and moderately impaired in 11% of patients (mean eGFR 82 mL/min/1.73 m²).
Dapagliflozin causes an osmotic diuresis, which may lead to a reduction in intravascular volume. Adverse reactions related to volume depletion (including reports of dehydration, hypovolemia, orthostatic hypotension, or hypotension) for the 12-study and 13-study, short-term, placebocontrolled pools and for the DECLARE study are shown in Table 4 [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Table 4: Adverse Reactions Related to Volume Depletion* in Clinical Studies with Dapagliflozin
|Pool of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies||Pool of 13 Placebo-Controlled Studies||DECLARE Study|
|Placebo||Dapagliflozin 5 mg||Dapagliflozin10 mg||Placebo||Dapagliflozin 10 mg||Placebo||Dapagliflozin 10 mg|
|Overall population N (%)||N=1393||N=1145||N=1193||N=2295||N=2360||N=8569||N=8574|
|Patient Subgroup n (%)|
|Patients on loop diuretics||n=55||n=40||n=31||n=267||n=236||n=934||n=866|
|Patients with moderate renal impairment with eGFR ≥30 and <60 mL/min/1.73 m²||n=107||n=107||n=89||n=268||n=265||n=658||n=604|
|Patients ≥65 years of age||n=276||n=216||n=204||n=711||n=665||n=3950||n=3948|
|* Volume depletion includes reports of dehydration, hypovolemia, orthostatic hypotension, or hypotension.|
The frequency of hypoglycemia by study [see Clinical Studies] is shown in Table 5. Hypoglycemia was more frequent when dapagliflozin was added to sulfonylurea or insulin [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Table 5: Incidence of Severe Hypoglycemia* and Hypoglycemia with Glucose < 54 mg/dL† in Controlled Glycemic Control Clinical Studies
|Placebo||Dapagliflozin 5 mg||Dapagliflozin 10 mg|
|Add-on to Metformin (24 weeks)||N=137||N=137||N=135|
|Severe [n (%)]||0||0||0|
|Glucose < 54 mg/dL [n (%)]||0||0||0|
|Add-on to DPP4 inhibitor (with or without Metformin) (24 weeks)||N=226||-||N=225|
|Severe [n (%)]||0||-||1 (0.4)|
|Glucose < 54 mg/dL [n (%)]||1 (0.4)||-||1 (0.4)|
|Add-on to Insulin with or without other OADs‡ (24 weeks)||N=197||N=212||N=196|
|Severe [n (%)]||1 (0.5)||2 (0.9)||2 (1.0)|
|Glucose < 54 mg/dL [n (%)]||43 (21.8)||55 (25.9)||45 (23.0)|
|* Severe episodes of hypoglycemia were defined as episodes of severe impairment in consciousness or behavior, requiring external (third party) assistance, and with prompt recovery after intervention regardless of glucose level.
† Episodes of hypoglycemia with glucose < 54 mg/dL (3 mmol/L) were defined as reported episodes of hypoglycemia meeting the glucose criteria that did not also qualify as a severe episode.
‡ OAD = oral antidiabetic therapy.
In the DECLARE study [see Clinical Studies], severe events of hypoglycemia were reported in 58 (0.7%) out of 8574 patients treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and 83 (1.0%) out of 8569 patients treated with placebo.
Genital Mycotic Infections
In the glycemic control studies, genital mycotic infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin treatment. Genital mycotic infections were reported in 0.9% of patients on placebo, 5.7% on dapagliflozin 5 mg, and 4.8% on dapagliflozin 10 mg, in the 12-study placebo-controlled pool. Discontinuation from study due to genital infection occurred in 0% of placebo-treated patients and 0.2% of patients treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg. Infections were more frequently reported in females than in males (see Table 3). The most frequently reported genital mycotic infections were vulvovaginal mycotic infections in females and balanitis in males. Patients with a history of genital mycotic infections were more likely to have a genital mycotic infection during the study than those with no prior history (10.0%, 23.1%, and 25.0% versus 0.8%, 5.9%, and 5.0% on placebo, dapagliflozin 5 mg, and dapagliflozin 10 mg, respectively). In the DECLARE study [see Clinical Studies], serious genital mycotic infections were reported in <0.1% of patients treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and <0.1% of patients treated with placebo. Genital mycotic infections that caused study drug discontinuation were reported in 0.9% of patients treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and <0.1% of patients treated with placebo.
Hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., angioedema, urticaria, hypersensitivity) were reported with dapagliflozin treatment. In glycemic control studies, serious anaphylactic reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions and angioedema were reported in 0.2% of comparator-treated patients and 0.3% of dapagliflozin-treated patients. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue use of dapagliflozin; treat per standard of care and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve.
In the DECLARE study [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Clinical Studies], events of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were reported in 27 out of 8574 patients in the dapagliflozin-treated group and in 12 out of 8569 patients in the placebo group. The events were evenly distributed over the study period.
Increases In Serum Creatinine And Decreases In eGFR
Initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors, including dapagliflozin, causes a small increase in serum creatinine and decrease in eGFR. These changes in serum creatinine and eGFR generally occur within two weeks of starting therapy and then stabilize regardless of baseline kidney function. Changes that do not fit this pattern should prompt further evaluation to exclude the possibility of acute kidney injury [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. In two studies that included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with moderate renal impairment, the acute effect on eGFR reversed after treatment discontinuation, suggesting acute hemodynamic changes may play a role in the renal function changes observed with dapagliflozin.
Increase In Hematocrit
In the pool of 13 placebo-controlled studies of glycemic control, increases from baseline in mean hematocrit values were observed in dapagliflozin-treated patients starting at Week 1 and continuing up to Week 16, when the maximum mean difference from baseline was observed. At Week 24, the mean changes from baseline in hematocrit were -0.33% in the placebo group and 2.30% in the dapagliflozin 10 mg group. By Week 24, hematocrit values >55% were reported in 0.4% of placebo-treated patients and 1.3% of dapagliflozin 10 mg-treated patients.
Increase In Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
In the pool of 13 placebo-controlled studies of glycemic control, changes from baseline in mean lipid values were reported in dapagliflozin-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. Mean percent changes from baseline at Week 24 were 0.0% versus 2.5% for total cholesterol, and -1.0% versus 2.9% for LDL cholesterol in the placebo and dapagliflozin 10 mg groups, respectively. In the DECLARE study [see Clinical Studies], mean changes from baseline after 4 years were 0.4 mg/dL versus -4.1 mg/dL for total cholesterol, and -2.5 mg/Dl versus -4.4 mg/dL for LDL cholesterol, in dapagliflozin 10 mg-treated and the placebo groups, respectively.
Vitamin B12 Concentrations
In metformin clinical trials of 29-week duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels was observed in approximately 7% of patients.
Additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of dapagliflozin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- Acute Kidney Injury
- Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis
- Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier's Gangrene)
Cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury
Table 6: Clinically Relevant Interactions with XIGDUO XR
|Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors|
|Clinical Impact||Topiramate or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) frequently causes a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs with XIGDUO XR may increase the risk for lactic acidosis.|
|Intervention||Consider more frequent monitoring of these patients.|
|Drugs that Reduce Metformin Clearance|
|Clinical Impact||Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2]/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors, such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].|
|Intervention||Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use.|
|Clinical Impact||Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism.|
|Intervention||Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving XIGDUO XR.|
|Drugs Affecting Glycemic Control|
|Clinical Impact||Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These medications include thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid.|
|Intervention||When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving XIGDUO XR, observe the patient closely for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving XIGDUO XR, observe the patient closely for hypoglycemia.|
|Positive Urine Glucose Test|
|Clinical Impact||SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion and will lead to positive urine glucose tests.|
|Intervention||Monitoring glycemic control with urine glucose tests is not recommended in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.|
|Interference with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) Assay|
|Clinical Impact||Measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors.|
|Intervention||Monitoring glycemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.|
Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Xigduo XR (Dapagliflozin and Metformin HCl Extended-release Tablets)
© Xigduo XR Patient Information is supplied by Cerner Multum, Inc. and Xigduo XR Consumer information is supplied by First Databank, Inc., used under license and subject to their respective copyrights.
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